Campbell Chapter 38
- Describe the general requirements for a respiratory surface
and list the variety of respiratory organs adapted for this
- Describe respiratory adaptations of aquatic animals.
- Describe countercurrent exchange and explain why it is more
efficient than concurrent flow of water and blood.
- Describe the advantages and disadvantages of air as a
respiratory medium and explain how insect tracheal systems are
adapted for efficient gas exchange in a terrestrial
- For the human respiratory system, describe the movement of air
through air passageways to the alveolus, listing the structures it
must pass through on the journey.
- Define negative pressure breathing and explain how respiratory
movements in humans ventilate the lungs.
- Define the following lung volumes and give a normal range of
capacities for the human male: a. Tidal volume b. Vital
capacity c. Residual volume
- Explain how breathing is controlled.
- List three barriers oxygen must cross from the alveolus into
the capillaries and explain the advantage of having millions of
alveoli in the lungs.
- Describe how oxygen moves from the alveolus into the capillary
and explain why a pressure gradient is necessary.
- Distinguish between hemocyanin and hemoglobin.
- Describe the structure of hemoglobin, explain the result of
cooperative binding and state how many oxygen molecules a
saturated hemoglobin molecule can carry.
- Draw the Hb-oxygen dissociation curve, explain the
significance of its shape and explain how the affinity of
hemoglobin for oxygen changes with oxygen concentration.
- Describe the Bohr effect and explain how the oxygen
dissociation curve shifts with changes in carbon dioxide
concentration and changes in pH.
- Explain the advantage of the Bohr shift.
- Describe how carbon dioxide is picked up at the tissues and
deposited in the lungs, describe the role of carbonic anhydrase
and state the form most of the carbon dioxide is in as it is
- Explain how hemoglobin acts as a buffer.
- Describe respiratory adaptations of diving mammals including
the role of myoglobin.