Campbell Chapter 38

  1. Describe the general requirements for a respiratory surface and list the variety of respiratory organs adapted for this purpose.
  2. Describe respiratory adaptations of aquatic animals.
  3. Describe countercurrent exchange and explain why it is more efficient than concurrent flow of water and blood.
  4. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of air as a respiratory medium and explain how insect tracheal systems are adapted for efficient gas exchange in a terrestrial environment.
  5. For the human respiratory system, describe the movement of air through air passageways to the alveolus, listing the structures it must pass through on the journey.
  6. Define negative pressure breathing and explain how respiratory movements in humans ventilate the lungs.
  7. Define the following lung volumes and give a normal range of capacities for the human male: a. Tidal volume b. Vital capacity c. Residual volume
  8. Explain how breathing is controlled.
  9. List three barriers oxygen must cross from the alveolus into the capillaries and explain the advantage of having millions of alveoli in the lungs.
  10. Describe how oxygen moves from the alveolus into the capillary and explain why a pressure gradient is necessary.
  11. Distinguish between hemocyanin and hemoglobin.
  12. Describe the structure of hemoglobin, explain the result of cooperative binding and state how many oxygen molecules a saturated hemoglobin molecule can carry.
  13. Draw the Hb-oxygen dissociation curve, explain the significance of its shape and explain how the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen changes with oxygen concentration.
  14. Describe the Bohr effect and explain how the oxygen dissociation curve shifts with changes in carbon dioxide concentration and changes in pH.
  15. Explain the advantage of the Bohr shift.
  16. Describe how carbon dioxide is picked up at the tissues and deposited in the lungs, describe the role of carbonic anhydrase and state the form most of the carbon dioxide is in as it is transported.
  17. Explain how hemoglobin acts as a buffer.
  18. Describe respiratory adaptations of diving mammals including the role of myoglobin.