They they can be found on soil, rocks, and the bark of trees, and in bogs and shallow streams.
The gametophyte's organs of sexual reproduction, called antheridia and archegonia, contain sperm and egg, respectively
Fertilization can take place only when the plants are wet; after fertilization, the egg grows into a sporophyte.
The sporophyte consists of a base, or foot, embedded in gametophyte tissue; a stalk that is usually long and slender; and a terminal capsule. The capsule, which in most species is covered by a small-toothed lid, contains numerous spores. (see below)