1. A condition in which fatty substances like cholesterol build up in the blood vessels is called _____________________
2. A drug that speeds up the activity of the nervous system is a ___________________ and a drug that slows down the nervous system is a ________________
3. A group of nerve cells at the top of the right atrium that generates an electrical impulse that spreads over the atria causing the heart to beat regularly is called the: ___________________
4. A portion of the brain involved in producing coordinated movements is your __________________
5. Bile, which is used to emulsify and neutralize the contents of the stomach, is made in the ______________ and temporarily stored in the gall bladder.
6. Blood cells which are large, of various types, contain nuclei, and defend the body against disease are: ___________________________
7. Blood returning from the lungs enters the ______________________ of the heart.
8. Blood sugar levels are regulated by these two hormones ______________ and ________________
9. Cell fragments in the blood which are involved in blood clotting are called __________________
10. Chewing is an example of _________________ digestion.
11. List 4 types of joints and give an example of each.
(1) ____________________ Example _______________________
(2) ____________________ Example _______________________
(3) ____________________ Example _______________________
(4) ____________________ Example _______________________
12. Conscious activities such as emotions, communicating and thinking are controlled by the _________________ of your brain
13. An adaptation that helps desert plants prevent water loss by storing CO2 at night is known as _________ photosynthesis
14. Describe the all-or-none law . ________________________________________________________
15. Describe the location of sodium and potassium ions when a nerve cell is resting.
16. During the process of glycolysis the cell makes 2 molecules of ATP and two molecules of a coenzyme called ______________
17. Electrons excited by light or in respiration are transferred through a series of membrane bound molecules called the ______________ ________________ chain.
18. Emphysema occurs when ____________________ in your lungs lose their elasticity.
19. Energy is stored chemically when a(n) __________________________ is added to ADP.
20. Ethyl _______________ is the end product of one type of fermentation.
21 What happens in step 4 of this homeostatic cycle regulating blood sugar.
(1) Liver converts glycogen to glucose.
(2) Blood glucose increases.
(3) Insulin released into the bloodstream by pancreas
(4) Liver converts glucose to _______________
(5) Blood glucose decreases
(6) Glucagon released into bloodstream by pancreas.
22. External respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the _______________ of your lungs
23. During stress or times involving fight or flight the __________________ nervous system is in control.
24. Filtering units of the kidney are the __________________
25. Food is moved from place to place in the digestive system by involuntary muscle contractions called ______________________
26. Green plants are able to trap ______________________ energy by using chlorophyll.
27. How does exercise affect the amount of CO2 exhaled? _____________________
28. Hunger and thirst are controlled by the part of the brain called the _________________
29. In order for the small intestine to better serve as an absorptive surface it is covered by millions of small finger-like projections called _______________
30. List 3 functions of the skeleton? ____________________ , __________________, and ________________________
31. List the 3 types of muscle and give an example of where each could be found.
(1) ____________________ Location _______________________
(2) ____________________ Location _______________________
(3) ____________________ Location _______________________
32. During ___________________ , light excites electrons and water is split forming hydrogen ions and oxygen gas.
33. List 3 functions of the skin. ___________________, ______________________ and ____________________
34. The most abundant substance in your body is_________________
35. List several diseases affecting the skeleton. _________________, _____________________ , and _______________________
36. The digestive enzyme ________________ works best in an acid environment..
37. List the main parts the the alimentary canal (digestive tract) in sequence.
mouth, _______________________, _____________________, _____________________, _________________________
38. Organic nutrients required in very small amounts to help maintain growth and metabolism are the __________________
39. Microscopic blood vessels whose walls are only one cell thick are called ____________________
40. Oxygen is given off as a waste product during the part of photosynthesis called ___________________________
41. Label the diagram of a sacromere below (use the terms actin and myosin.
42. Pain and inflammation in joints is generally caused by ___________________ a type of autoimmune disease
43. Plants and animals release energy and convert it into ATP by breaking down sugar molecules in organelles called ________________________
44. Sound waves stimulate nerves in the snail-like part of your ear called the ________________
45. The area of your nervous system protected by bone, fluid, and three layers of connective tissue called meninges is the ______________________________
46. The basic unit of the nervous system is a cell called a _______________________
47. The citric acid cycle is responsible for converting the energy in the by-products of glycolysis to _______
48. The equation CO2 + H2O ---> C6H12O6 + O2 represents what happens during: _______________________
49. The function of connective tissue is to _____________ and join other tissues of the body and includes cartilage, ___________, ligament, ______________ and blood.
50. A reflex travels from sensory neuron to your ___________________ then directly back to a muscle by way of a _______________ neuron.
51. Describe the purpose of the following enzymes in digestion -
52. The impulse which travels through the axon of a nerve cell is caused by the ___________________ of its membrane.
53. The kidneys regulate _________________, __________________ and ____________________ of blood.
54. The material in the chloroplast that surrounds the grana thylakoids is called the _________________
55. What keeps the stomach from digesting itself? ____________________________
56. The medulla oblongata controls involuntary activities such as _____________, heartbeat rate, swallowing and even sneezing.
57. The molecule that can convert light energy into electrical energy in the thylakoid membranes is ____________________
58. List 4 substances found in whole blood. _________________ ________________ _________________ __________________
59. The most important part of any respiratory system is the presence of _______________ membranes
60. When cells break down glucose by aerobic respiration, six molecules of ________________ are formed.
61. After each macromolecule list the subunits from which it is made.
Nucleic acids _____________________________
62. The number of _______________ (cells) in a muscle do not change during your lifetime. This being the case how do muscles increase in strength after exercise? ________________________________
63. Pressure caused by the contraction of the ventricles is called ______________________ The lower blood pressure is called ______________________
64. Which part of your skin has cells that respond to sunlight to color and protect it? ________________
65. A synapse is a________________________________
66. The part of your skin containing blood vessels, nerves, sweat glands, and oil glands is the ________
67. What process produces the most ATP during respiration? ______________________
68. The production of hormones is controlled by a process called ______________ ________________:
69. The retina is the part of the eye that _________________ while the lens focuses the light, and the brain forms an image.
70. The right ventricle pumps blood to your _______________ and the left ventricle pumps blood to ___________________________
71. When you exhale the diaphragm ________________ but when you take a breath it must __________________
72. The skeleton develops gradually from flexable _________________ to hard ____________ What makes the bone hard? ___________________
73. The skin is waterproofed and held together by ______________
74. A protein containing iron found in red blood cells which carries oxygen is ___________________
75. The three organizational levels of cells in the body are ________________ , ________________, and __________________
76. The ______________ cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts.
77. A tough band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone is called a ________________ while a ____________________ connects muscle to bone.
78. The ______________________ is a part of the brain that links the endocrine system and the nervous system.
79. This flap of tissue controls when air can pass from the trachea to the bronchial tubes. ___________
80. Urine enters the bladder by way of the ________________ and leaves the bladder through a tube called the ___________________
81. Water and some minerals are reabsorbed in the __________________________
82. What is the name of one of the hormones that controls calcium level in the blood? ______________
83. The reacting molecule which receives electrons used in respiration and is necessary to complete the process of oxidizing sugar is:__________________
84. When carbon dioxide is bubbled into water the resulting solution forms H2CO3 which is ______________________
85. The light reactions of photosynthesis occur in the ___________________ membranes of plants.
86. The water-conducting tissues (xylem) of a pine tree (conifer) consist of cells called _________________
87. The primary function of root hairs is to: provide a large _________________________ for mineral absorption
88. Most of the photosynthetic activity of a typical angiosperm takes place in the ____________________ cells of the leaf.
89. A Casparian strip is associated with cells of the ___________________ and helps to regulate passage of materials into the _____________________
90. A major function of cortex cells of the root is the production of _______________________ molecules such as amylopectin
91. The components of a sieve tube are cells that: have ______________ in their end walls; are _____________ at maturity but lack nuclei; depend on ______________________ cells to regulate their activities ; and can transport sugary sap
92. Rhizomes and tubers are examples of modified underground ______________ .
93. A type of cell that has lignin-impregnated secondary walls and is dead at maturity is a ______________________ cell.
94. List 3 adaptations in plants for which water conservation during the growing season is a significant problem. _________________________, ________________________, _______________________
95. Structurally speaking, root hairs are extensions of _______________________ cells
96. Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring surrounding the ground tissue of the stem in __________________
97. A plant that continues to increase in girth year after year would be called a woody __________________
98. Prior to fertilization in the angiosperms, pollen grains are released from the ______________ of the flower to land upon the _____________________ of the same or another flower.
99. A plant that is dioecious has both staminate and _____________________ flowers
100. The pollen grains of angiosperms are male _________________________ .
101. Double fertilization in the angiosperms refers to the fusion of one sperm nucleus with an egg cell's nucleus and a second sperm nucleus with the ___________________ in the ____________ of a flower.
102. Fertilization in the Angiosperms produces a ___________________ zygote and _______________________ nutritive cells or endosperm.
103. In Angiosperms, a __________________ develops from the outer layer of the ovule while ________________________ develops from the outer wall of the ovary.
104. The event marking the beginning of _____________________ is the uptake of water by the seed.
105. In land plants a growing root tip is protected by the _________________________.
106. Root hairs arise from cells of the _____________________, whereas branch roots arise from cells of the _____________________ .
107. Primary root growth is chiefly a result of cell ___________________ in tissue just above the apical meistem.
108. Leaves are produced by patches of leaf primordia found on the flanks of the ______________ meristem.
109. The phytochrome system helps to entrain (reset) the biological clock by indicating to the plant that (red -- dominant during the day) light is present when ________ is rapidly converted to ___________
110. Since ground water is normally hypotonic compared with cytoplasm, root pressure is accounted for by _____________________.
111. Water moves upward through the stems of plants principally because of the force provided by _______________________
112. Water losses due to transpiration are least important for plants on a day that is _____________ and _________________ (temperature and amount of water in the air)
113. As potassium ions diffuse into guard cells, stomata will _______________.
114. _____________ light stimulates the opening of the stomata by increasing the __________________ of potassium ions
115. Plants that utilize Crassulacean acid metabolism take in carbon dioxide mostly at _______________ .
116. The movement of sugars through the phloem of a plant stem takes place as a result of water entering the _____________ (osmosis) from the xylem at the source -- and occurs from sugar source to a ____________ where sugar is removed.
117. In a plant that carries out photosynthesis using radioactive CO2 gas, radioactive sugars will be found primarily in the ______________ of vascular tissue .
118. Plant hormones have one or more highly _____________ effects such as elongation or fruit ripening
119. Cells in the growing region of the shoot will begin to elongate if the shoot tip is removed and the cut surface is treated with _____________.
120 Abscission occurs in the petioles of a deciduous tree when reduced ______________ concentration results in increased ________________ gas production
121. Which plant hormone has a general inhibitory effect? ____________________
122. The lateral buds of plants, such as the conifers, will begin to grow from bottom branches when the plant reaches a certain ______________ (as auxin concentrations fall sufficiently) forming the characteristic triangular shape.
123. Describe the effect of cytokinin on plant cells ____________________________
124. Gibberellins were first isolated from ________________ of rice seedlings.
125. Differentiation of secondary tissues in woody plants is stimulated by a combination of auxin and _______________________
126. What is true about the hormonal control of the ripening of fruits?
127. The bending of stems toward the light has been shown to be due to the increased transport of auxin on the side _______________________ from the lighted side.
128. The righting of a seedling (position of a seed when it germinates) is best characterized as a ______________________ response.
129. Spinach is a long-day plant with a critical photoperiod (day length) of 14 hours. This means that spinach will flower if exposed to an uninterrupted ___ period of ____ hours
130. A plant that is day-neutral will flower ____________________ of photoperiods.
131. Which of the following represents the response of a plant to mechanical stimuli a short, stocky growth pattern
132. The folding of the leaflets of the sensitive plant, Mimosa pudica, is a ____________________ response.
133. Gentle stroking of the tendril of a pea plant will not induce curling if______________________
134. A seedling that is etiolated is ___________________ and elongated.