Major Concepts to review for A.P. Exam


Small Molecules

 

You should be able to illustrate a covalent and ionic bond using Lewis dot structures.

 

Know the important properties of Carbon

  • 4 relatively strong covalent bonds
  • Tetrahedral Shape
  • Variety of bond types single, double, rings
  • Carbon can bond to itself forming large chains
  • Carbon may bond to S, N, P, and O in variety of ways

 

Properties of Water (Polar Molecule because of electronegativity difference between oxygen and hydrogen)

  • High Surface Tension
  • Heat of vaporization high
  • Hydrogen bonds strong, 4 of them
  • Excellent solvent of things, ionic or polar
  • Specific heat is high
  • Ice floats

 

Know the following Functional Groups

- OH

Hydroxyl

- NH2

Amino

Carboxyl

- CH3

Methyl

Aldehyde

- S-H

Sulfhydral

Ketone

- PO4-3

Phosphate

 

Acid, base, and buffers; importance in biological systems.



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