Dehydration Linkage - Monomers -----> Polymer + H2O
Hydrolysis - Polymers + H2O ----> Monomers (a hydrolytic change)
Monomers are sugars which undergo dehydration reactions to form -polymers (glycosidic linkage)
Polymers include:plant starchs (amylase or amylopectin). Starch turns black/blue with iodine)
animal starch - glycogen
cellulose (structural polymer in plants only)
chitin (structural polymer in animal exoskeletons and cell walls of fungi)
The enzyme that can break the 1-4 beta links in cellulose = cellulase
Everything that is hydrophobic is considered a lipid
3 Fatty Acids + Glycerol = Fats or triglycerides
Saturated lipids have no double bonds (animal fats)
Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds (plant oils)
Cholestrol ----> Steriods (hormone) 4 linked rings + side chains
Enzyme which breaks down lipids = lipase
Monomers for polypeptides include 20 different Amino Acids
Polymers - dehydration reactions produce peptide bonds and an infinite variety of polypeptides or proteins are possible.
4 Levels of protein structure are:
1st - Linear arrangment of amino acids (peptide bond)
2nd - Double Helix or B-pleated sheets (Hydrogen Bonds)
3rd - Globular (3d) shape (hydrogen, ionic, hydrophobic, and covalent bonds)
4th - 2 or more polypeptides combine usually forming an allosteric site which is involved in enzyme regulation. All four types of bonding is possible
Various proteases are involved in protein digestion.
Monomers are nucleotides. 5 nucleotides are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uricil.
There are two nucleic acids; DNA and RNA
DNA has the following properties:Contains A,T, C and G and the sugar deoxyribose
Much larger than RNA
Usually a double helix
Very stable and easily repaired
Functions primarily in data storage and transmission by replication.
RNA has the following properties:Contains A,U, C and G and the sugar ribose
Much smaller than DNA
Usually a single stranded molecule
Functions primarily in data conversion by translation (protein synthesis), and may act as a catalyst (ribozyme)