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Thanks to the University of Virgina
for posting Jurgen.
This is the complete text of the book as it was published in 1928.
Notes and comments that were not part of the original text are rendered in a green font and are attributed by initials to one of the following sources:
There have been printed eight hundred and fifty copies of Notes on Jurgen of which eight hundred and thirty-one are for sale.
This is number 801
If, like John Charteris, Mr. Cabell is an Economist; he is also, like Jurgen, a pawnbroker. And, whatever economy he may show in parsimoniously using his characters in as many different books as their recorded ages and the credulity of his readers permit, and in charitably reintroducing those characters into not wholly unfamiliar plots; his display of treasures at second-hand is more generous than that of any rival since Hebrew was first spoken beneath the triple emblem of the Medici. For in his books are long-dead authors and unremembered heroes and old, out-moded gods, garnered from the dust heap of thrown-by years and here magically refurbished and given a new lease on immortality. And there is no form of antiquarian research more remunerative in hard-won success and stimulating frustration than that undertaken in this pawn shop of dreams which bears upon its signboard the name of Jurgen.
So, for a great many spare hours in the last six years, I have wandered among these literary antiques, studying them and seeking to discover something of the lands and ages of their origin. I have sought them in the indices of the encyclopedias, tracked them down the finely printed columns of mythological dictionaries, and found many of them shamefacedly hiding upon the "Children's Shelves" where most public libraries' meager wealth of folk-lore is stored. Through tall volumes in history they have led me and through quaintly worded myths and black tomes on witchcraft. And in the end I have captured many of them, depriving them of the renewed life that Mr. Cabell gave them, have placed them in this book, like dead trophies on a wall for anyone's inspection.
And inspection, it must be confessed, may reveal faults enough. Curiosity alone claims credit for the notes that follow, and scholarship admits to no aid in their composition. The question, simply, was whether or not these strange names had ever existed anywhere save in a Virginia gentleman's imagination. And, if they did so exist, what light might their stories throw upon the incidents of Jurgen's bold journey towards futility. And the answers are such as a search through the shelves of the nearest public libraries and the book cases of my friends could furnish me. Whenever it was possible, the particular phase of any subject referred to in Jurgen has been stressed in the note concerning it; failing that, I have set down as much of the available knowledge as seemed interesting. Naturally, no character out of folk-lore or mythology could be ignored, but to those with whom every educated reader might well be acquainted, I have given only the smallest space. And, whenever a character who plays an important part in any of Mr. Cabell's other romances strays briefly into Jurgen, I have pointed out where a further account of his adventures may be found. Furthermore, with what may indeed seem an excess of generosity, I have called attention to certain aspects of the tale which one, meeting the pawnbroker of Poictesme for the first time, might easily overlook.
But I cannot, as Jurgen does, so glibly cite my authorities. Long ago, when these notes were begun, I had no thought of their publication and so kept no record of their origins: later, when I began to jot down my sources, it was only that I might find again the books I had consulted. So the Bibliography at the end of this book must be innocent of such minute details as places and dates of publication, and sometimes even the authors' initials. In it, however, are listed most of the books I have found useful; though some have supplied me with material for one note only, while others have furnished a score or more. A few volumes, directly mentioned and quoted in the text, are not included.
But some allusions were not to be found in any book: there is not yet an end to searching after "Cabell references." Such strange fellows as Phorgemon and Graemagog still remain elusive, while the exact geographical location of Amneran Heath and Lacre Kai might prove interesting. And when there is left in Jurgen no more cause for searching, Figures of Earth, besides offering nice problems in medieval history, presents such charming mysteries as Suskind and Freydis and the Zhar-Ptitza Bird. [DR: There is a follow-up book, Notes on Figures of Earth.] And there are other romances concerning Poictesme which go even further afield into the lands of myth. So he who chooses may join me in this gay, troublesome task of searching after the old, forgotten homes of all those battered beauties of the earth, whose ghosts so brightly move again through Mr. Cabell's pages.
In the notes that follow the subjects are listed in the order of their first appearance in Jurgen. The marginal numbers are those of the pages of Jurgen on which the words opposite them are first to be found: the Roman numerals referring to the pages in the Kalki and Illustrated American editions of the book; and those in Italics, and enclosed in brackets, referring to the corresponding pages in the English edition. See Index II, page 109 for references to the definitive "Storisende Edition." Subjects concerning which nothing could be found have been included in their proper places; and, in case the reader might wish to join in the search for these elusive names, a brief space for writing down of his discoveries has been left after each.
1 [xv] Authorities — The authorities – de Ruiz, Verville, Bülg, Lewistam, Codman, and Prote – quoted by Mr. Cabell, are conspicuously absent from the encyclopedias are probably faked. Of only one of them, Bülg, have we any biographical details. Ben Ray Redman, writing in The Reviewer for November 1921, on Bülg the Forgotten, says that Gottfried Johannes Bülg was born in Strasburg in 1753; was educated at the University of Leipsig; became famous upon the publication of a monumental work, in 1782, on the folk-lore of Poictesme; and died, in 1795, of heart failure. Bülg, says Mr. Redman, stole the entire work from another scholar and changed it materially, so as to give it more popular appeal. Mr. Redman's article is obviously a hoax, an effort to carry Mr. Cabell's joke one step further.
3  The Judging of Jurgen — This was originally published as a pamphlet, in October 1920, by The Bookfellows, Chicago. It was worked into the thirty-second chapter of the English edition of Jurgen; and was added, at the eighth printing, to the Foreword of the American edition.
3  Philistines — The word Philistine, since the seventeenth century, has been a word of contempt used by the cultured concerning their inferiors in intellect and taste. It was first used in England by Carlyle; and Matthew Arnold made in popular, using it in the sense of "those inaccessible to and impatient of ideas."
3  Tumblebug — This is Mr. Cabell's polite personification of John S. Sumner, Secretary of the New York Society for the Prevention of Vice, who was chiefly instrumental in obtaining the temporary suppression of Jurgen.
3  Pages — Note the pun here.
4  St. Anthony — This is Anthony Comstock, who started the campaign against immoral literature in America, and who is largely responsible for the prudish Puritanism of our suppression laws. His name is immortalized in "comstockery," a word invented by George Bernard Shaw
5  Edgar — This is Edgar Allan Poe (see also Wikipedia).
5  Walt — This is Walt Whitman (see also Wikipedia).
5  Mark — This is Mark Twain (see also Wikipedia). The books which Mark hid away until after he was dead are The Mysterious Stranger, published in 1916; What is Man, published in 1917; his Autobiography, published (in part, at least) in 1924; A Million Years Among the Microbes, not yet (1928) published; and 1601, which is in circulation, although perhaps too obscene to be issued save in a very limited edition.
[DR]: The Mysterious Stranger is a strange case. Twain made three attempts over a span of many years to write this book. The first time, he wrote only a single chapter. The next time he picked it up, he got farther, but did not work through to an ending. The final attempt was complete; however it was not polished or coherent, and meandered horribly. Presumably at that point, late in his life, Twain was aware that what he wanted to write here was too controversial to sell, and so he went on with it merely to experiment and to suit himself. The executors of his estate found these texts among his papers and decided to blend them into a complete story, and they accomplished this by using the bulk of the second version plus the ending of the third version plus some additional re-writing. They then announced that they had "discovered" an unpublished novel, which wasn't entirely true, but the result is worth reading. This is the commonly available version, which can be found in various reprints; here is one. This is presumably the version that the writer above was familiar with, and he probably did not know of the liberties taken to make the book presentable. The full text of the three original versions is available from the University of California Press under the title No. 44, The Mysterious Stranger (also available at Amazon).
The Autobiography was developed very self-indulgently: It was dictated to and transcribed by a secretary, chapter by chapter, in no particular order other than Twain's free association. The result frustrated most readers. In recent years, Charles Neider edited and chronologically arranged this edition. By the way, some of the particularly (for their day) controversial chapters (having to do with religion and social custom) were marked with a request that they not be published until 100 years (or, in one instance, 500 years) after Twain's death. This was ostensibly to protect his descendents from stigma. However, by the 1950's, after numerous requests, his surviving daughter had acquiesced to the publication of all of his writings. Some of these ended up in Letters from the Earth.
Some similar controversial (for its day) unfinished work can be found in The Devil's Race-Track, Mark Twain's Great Dark Writings. This includes the fragment, "Three Thousand Years Among the Microbes".
9  Poictesme — This is a land of Mr. Cabell's own invention, the geography of which is hopelessly mixed, since it draws on many realms of the earth and several of the imagination for its component parts. In the earlier romances it is simply somewhere on the map of Europe; in books dealing with a later time it is placed definitely within the boundaries of France. Two maps of Poictesme exist: one, drawn by Mr. Cabell, is to be found in James Branch Cabell, by Carl Van Doren; and the other, drawn by Frank C. Papé, may be had in the form of an ordinary map for the wall. The Papé drawing is also used as a decoration on the end-papers of the limited first edition of The Silver Stallion.
[MK]: Cabell explains the origin of the name "Poictesme" in a short piece called "A Note About Poictesme" which first appeared in the large-paper illustrated edition (1926 or '28, I forget which) of The Silver Stallion, and is reprinted in volume 18 of the Storisende Edition. At any rate, he tells us that it is a portmanteau word – a word made by combining two other words, like breakfast + lunch = brunch. In this case it is the name of two provinces in France, Poitiers (medieval Poictiers) and Angoulesme, which are combined. Not as interesting as some of the anagrams, perhaps, but there are the bald facts.
A page at the Virginia Commonwealth University Library notes that "Poictesme" is pronounced "Pwa-tem".
[DR]: In Jack Woodford's autobiography, The Autobiography of Jack Woodford, Woodford speaks extensively of his friendship with Mr. Cabell, and relates various interesting tales and anecdotes. From Chapter 4:
...For a long time my friend James Branch Cabell, in his younger days, made a good living whipping up genealogies for the nouveau riche all over the country. Later he wrote eighteen volumes, stemming from Jurgen, of the biography of Dom Manuel in the Land of Poictesme. I finally got intimate enough with Mr. Cabell on a visit to Virgina to ask him about this proper noun "Poictesme". He regarded me owlishly over the tops of his professorial spectacles — he never learned to wear bifocals — and informed me that it was the sound one made when he pursed his mouth to spit and ejected spittle with the use of the tongue to make nuances of musical degree.
Poictesme is really the United States, mercifully in disguise, as the Bible disguises everything...
9  Origen — Origen (185-254) was one of the most distinguished and influential theologians of the ancient church. He did much to reconcile the Christian religion with Greek philosophy, especially that of the Stoics. His most controverted teachings – and those referred to here by the priest – were those on the ultimate salvation of all, as he held that even the devils would finally be redeemed.
10  Bellegarde — Bellegarde is a town in eastern France, on the Rhone. A French fortress near the Spanish border also bears this name.
12  Morven — Morven means "a ridge of high hills." It was a name formerly applied to all the northwest of Scotland.
[DR]: This Wikipedia page identifies a mountain in Scotland named "Morven".
12  Amneran Heath — ? [See also page 119 of Notes on Figures of Earth.]
13  Walburga's Eve — This is the night of April the thirtieth, the eve of May Day, on which St. Walburga is commemorated. It was a night especially favored by the witches for their Sabbat.
[DR]: Walburga's Eve is also referenced in Chapter XXXV of The Cream of the Jest:
Also, in That Certain Hour:
I recollected now how his face changed. "And what in heaven's name was a Sabbat?" Then he fidgeted, and crossed his legs the other way.
I replied: "Well! it was scarcely heaven's name that was invoked there, if old tales are to be trusted. Traditionally, the Sabbat was a meeting attended by all witches in satisfactory diabolical standing, lightly attired in smears of various magical ointments; and their vehicle of transportation to this outing was, of course, the traditional broomstick. Good Friday," I continued, seeing they all seemed willing enough to listen, "was the favorite date for these gatherings, which were likewise held after dusk on St. John's Eve, on Walburga's Eve, and on Hallowe'en Night. The diversions were numerous: there was feasting, music, and dancing, with the devil performing obligatos on the pipes or a cittern, and not infrequently preaching a burlesque sermon. He usually attended in the form of a monstrous goat; and – when not amorously inclined, often thrashed the witches with their own broomsticks. The more practical pursuits of the evening included the opening of graves, to despoil dead bodies of finger- and toe-joints, and certain portions of the winding-sheet, with which to prepare a powder that had strange uses.... But the less said of that, the better. Here, also, the devil taught his disciples how to make and christen statues of wax, so that by roasting these effigies the persons whose names they bore would be wasted away by sickness."
"Have you forgotten it is Walburga's Eve?" Makrisi said. Raimbaut did not regret he could not see his servant's countenance. "Time was we named it otherwise and praised another woman than a Saxon wench, but let the new name stand. It is Walburga's Eve, that little, little hour of evil! and all over the world surges the full tide of hell's desire, and mischief is a-making now, apace, apace, apace. People moan in their sleep, and many pillows are pricked by needles that have sewed a shroud. Cry Eman hetan now, messire! for there are those to-night who find the big cathedrals of your red-roofed Christian towns no more imposing than so many pimples on a butler's chin, because they ride so high, so very high, in this brave moonlight. Full-tide, full-tide!" Makrisi said, and his voice jangled like a bell as he drew aside the curtain so that the old knight saw into the room beyond.
Writer and musician John Treville Latouche was, in his youth, a protégé of Cabell, and wrote a 1928 play entitled "Walpurgis Eve". This presumably was not of great literary merit, since Latouche was born in 1914. The relationship (not of great importance) is touched on in Jack Woodford's The Autobiography of Jack Woodford, mentioned earlier.
15  Koshchei the Deathless — Mr. Cabell, in this and other romances, seems to use Koshchei as the supreme deity of the universe, the universal demiurge, the god of things as they are. In Russian folk-lore, Koshchei is the personification of evil, appearing sometimes in human shape and sometimes as a snake. In the legends concerning him, he is generally discovered, imprisoned behind a forbidden door, by a bridegroom prince. He tricks the prince into releasing him, and promptly carries off the prince's fairy wife, who is rescued only with the greatest difficulty. Koshchei is not really deathless, but only hard to kill; as his death lies in an egg, that is in a duck, that is in a hare, that is in a casket, that is under an oak in an inaccessible place.
16  Nessus — The shirt of Nessus, which Jurgen so carelessly dons, is regarded as a source of misfortune from which there is no escape. Hercules ordered Nessus, the centaur, to carry his wife, Dejanira, across a river. The centaur, midway across the stream, attacked the woman, and Hercules shot him with a poisoned arrow. The dying Nessus, in order to be revenged, gave Dejanira his tunic, steeped in his poisoned blood, saying that the person to whom she gave it would love her exclusively. Dejanira gave it to her husband, who was devoured by the poison as soon as he put it on; so that, after enduring great agony, the hero threw himself on a funeral pile and was consumed.
[MK]: Cabell's original title for Jurgen was The Pawnbroker's Shirt.
18  Danaë's Shower — While Danaë was confined in a brazen tower by her father, Zeus descended to her in a shower of gold, and she gave birth to Perseus.
19  Count Emmerick — Emmerick, the only son of Dom Manuel to be born in wedlock, figures very slightly in the legends of Poictesme. He is introduced into Book First of The Cream of the Jest; and, in The Silver Stallion, reigns rather weakly over Poictesme, at first under his mother as regent, and later under the dominance of his somewhat elderly wife.
19  Storisende — This is probably "story's end." The use made of the castle in The Cream of the Jest, where it is first introduced into Mr. Cabell's books, strengthens this interpretation.
19  Rudolph and Anne — This is Rudolph Musgrave and Anne Willoughby, afterwards Anne Charteris. For the history of this couple see The Rivet in Grandfather's Neck.
19  The Red Mustard Jar — The two who are "walking in the glaze of the red mustard jar" are Robert Townsend and Stella Musgrave. For this couple see The Cords of Vanity; and, for the particular incident alluded to here, see page 203 of that book.
22  Dorothy la Désirée — This was Dom Manuel's third child. She plays a prominent part in this book only.
24  Dom Manuel — Dom Manuel was the legendary
redeemer of Poictesme, whose life history is set forth in Figures of Earth,
and whose metamorphosis from a rather fallible human being to a holy redeemer is
described in The Silver Stallion. According to Figures of Earth,
Jurgen was a small child when he saw Manuel die; according to this passage,
it seems, he was over twenty-one. The Lineage of Lichfield says that Manuel
was born 23 December 1213, and died 29 September 1239;
and that Jurgen was born 8 April 1235; which would make Jurgen four
years old at the time.
However, the apparent discrepancy above might be explained by the fact that, technically, Manuel's reign extended through the regency of Niafer and ended only in 1258, when Emmerick became of age and succeeded his father as Count of Poictesme.
26  Gâtinais — Gâtinais was an ancient province of central France, the capital of which was Montargis. It is now a part of the department of Loiret.
26  Vidame de Soyecourt — The descendants of this nobleman appear in other books by Mr. Cabell as Princes of Gâtinais. In Gallantry, Louis de Soyecourt becomes Grand Duke of Noumaria and, in one of Kennaston's dreams in The Cream of the Jest, goes bravely to his death on the guillotine during the French Revolution. In The High Place, Antoine de Soyecourt is a second in the fraternal duel in which Florian kills Raoul.
34  Valkyries — In Norse myth, the Valkyries were female warriors, who carried the souls of those slain in battle to Valhalla, and there attended them at banquets.
34  Amazons — The Amazons were a mythical race of female warriors who brought up only their daughters, either killing or sending away their sons.
34  Cynocephali — In the Middle Ages it was generally believed that there existed, somewhere in the remote parts of the earth, a race of satyrs, with bodies like men and heads like hounds, who were called Cynocephali.
34  Baba-Yagas — The Baba-Yaga is the Russian witch, a huge, gaunt hag, with disheveled hair and a nose so long it projects through the ceiling when she lies down. She lives in a house built on fowl's legs, that turns around to face the forest at her command; and she rides in a mortar, using a pestle for a whip and sweeping away all traces of her flight with a broom. She lives on human flesh, which she bakes nicely in her oven before eating it.
34  Morfei — In Russian folk-lore, Morfei is a magic cook who can supply, in any amount, any kind of food his master may demand.
34  Oh — In Russian folk-lore, Oh is a magician who sometimes appears upon the calling of his name. In one case the invocation was, "Oh, I am so tired."
35  Lepracauns — In Irish folk-lore, the lepracaun is a fairy shoemaker, a little old man seen always alone and working on one shoe only. He is a miser and very rich.
35  Men of Hunger — In Irish folk-lore, the Fear-Gorta, or Man of Hunger, is an emaciated phantom that goes through the land in time of famine, begging for alms and bringing good luck to the giver.
35  Clobhair — In Irish folk-lore, the Clobhair-ceann, or Cluricaun, is a fairy, greatly resembling the lepracaun, who steals into wine cellars and makes himself drunk.
35  Chiron — In Greek mythology, Chiron was the wisest of the Centaurs, and their king.
35  The Sphinx — The Sphinx was a fabulous monster, part woman and part lion, which infested the highway near the city of Thebes, asking a riddle of all who passed by and killing all who could not answer it. Œdipus answered the riddle, and the Sphinx killed herself in mortification.
35  The Chimæra — The Chimæra was a mythological monster which breathed fire, and whose body was composed of the parts of a lion, a goat, and a dragon. It was killed by Bellerophon, riding on Pegasus.
35  Cerberus — Cerberus was the three-headed dog that guarded the entrance to Hades.
36  Caesar Pharamond — This was, perhaps, Andronicus Comnenus, emperor of the East, a sort of princely Don Juan, born in the early part of the twelfth century. He was handsome and eloquent, but licentious; and at the same time active, hardy and courageous; a great general and an able politician. He served under his cousin, the emperor Manuel (note that this is a historical Manuel and not Cabell's Manuel — DR) , and was alternately in and out of favor with that monarch. When Alexius II succeeded Manuel to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire, and, by his conduct, caused popular indignation, giving rise to disorders amounting almost to civil war; Andronicus marched on Constantinople and was soon master of the situation. In 1180, having married the daughter of Alexius, he was proclaimed co-emperor with him. In 1183 he caused Alexius to be strangled with a bow-string, and so became sole emperor. It is obvious that Jurgen, who was not born until 1235, could have had no dealings with Andronicus; so in later editions of the book the name of this emperor is changed to Palælogus [BL: should be Palæologus] ; who, as Michael VIII, ruled over the Eastern Roman Empire from 1260 to 1282. It seems that he was no more adverse to assassination than was his ancestor.
37  The Giants — The giants are Bread and Butter, so that the garden may be altered, as is predicted at the beginning of the chapter, "by the requirements of bread and butter."
37  Ædhumla — In Norse mythology, Ædhumla was the cow of Ymir, the first living being in the universe. Ædhumla licked out of the rocks the figure of a man, who became the progenitor of the gods.
40  Mother Sereda — Sereda is the Russian word for Wednesday. It means "the middle," since Wednesday is the middle of the week. Mother Wednesday is a personification of the day after which she is named; and, in Russian folk-lore, is represented as a woman no longer young and wearing a white towel by way of headdress. If Wednesday's traditional tasks, spinning and bleaching, are not properly done, she is likely to enter the house and do them; but her visit is a thing to be dreaded, and prevented at all costs.
40  Léshy — This is Mr. Cabell's name for all supernatural beings. Léshy is a name given to the gods of Poictesme very much in the same way as Æsir is a name given to the Scandinavian gods. The supernal rulers of Poictesme owe only their names to the léshy of the Russian folk-tales, since these last are wood sprites with iron heads and copper bodies who live in the depths of the forest and kidnap humans.
40  Clotho and Lachesis — These were two of the three Classic Fates, whose business was to spin the thread of human destiny.
40  Pyatinka — This is Mother Friday of Russian folk-lore. She is a foe to spinning and weaving and does not like to see it done on her day.
40  Nedelka — Nedelka is the Russian Mother Sunday. She rules the animal world and can collect her subjects by playing on a magic flute. The accompanying names are, of course, the Russian words for the other days of the week: Pandelis, Monday; Utornik, Tuesday; Chetverg, Thursday; and Subbota, Saturday.
44  Sabellius — Sabellius was a Libian priest of the third century and one of the most prominent of the Gnostic leaders.
[DR]: Note the reference to Sabellians on page 142.
44  Artemidorus — Several ancient writers bore the name of Artemidorus. One was Artemidorus the Geographer, a native of Ephesus, who was the author of travel accounts, and who lived about 100 B.C. Another was the Dream Interpreter, born at Ephesus in the beginning of the second century A.D., who was surnamed "the Daldian," and who wrote books upon the interpretation of dreams. Still another was a grammarian of the time of Sulla, who is said to be the first editor of the poems of Theocritus. One of these may have been the Artemidorus Minor whom Jurgen pretends to quote.
45  Saevius Nicanor — Suetonius, in his Lives of Eminent Grammarians, Chapter V, says "Saevius Nicanor first acquired fame and reputation by his teaching; and, besides, he made commentaries, the greater part of which, however, are said to have been borrowed. He also wrote a satire, in which he informs us that he was a freedman, and had a double cognomen, in the following verses.
Saevius Nicanor Marci libertus negabit,
Saevius Posthumius idem, sed Marcus, docebit.
What Saevius Nicanor the freedman of Marcus, will deny
The same Saevius, called also Posthumius Marcus, will assert.
[BL]: The translation of the second line of the couplet is rather weird, though the passage is quite hard to be certain of. "Posthumius idem, sed Marcus" can't possibly be rendered as implying a name "Posthumius Marcus" (an outrage against Roman nomenclature anyway, since Marcus is a first or intimate name). My rendering:
Saevius Posthumius (the same), though a Marcus himself, will teach it.
It's hard to render this use of "idem" neatly. Certainly it's far too free to render "docere" with "assert".It is reported, that in consequence of some infamy attached to his character, he returned to Sardinia, and there ended his days." Of this Saevius Nicanor nothing else is known, unless he is the Suevius whom Macrobius describes as the author of an idyl, called Mulberry Grove; observing that "the peach which Suevius reckons as a species of nuts, rather belongs to the tribe of apples." Mr. Cabell pretends to translate Taboo from the Mulberry Grove and, in a note to that book, makes amusing use of Macrobius' comment.
46  Such and such a year — The Lineage of Lichfield, page 23, note, makes this year 1256. From the same authority we learn that Jurgen set forth upon his eventful journey on the last [DR: typographical error in the text of the book; sentence does not finish]
[BL]: Surely the missing part can be at least guessed from "The Lineage of Lichfield", if you have a copy? I don't. I suspect it's a date; something like "the last day of summer".
48  Messire de Montors — Ayrart de Montors was the second son of Dom Manuel's half-sister, Matthiette. (For additional comments about Matthiette, see also the entry for Math (page 50) in Notes on Figures of Earth. — DR) According to Mr. Cabell, he held the papal chair as Adrian VII from 1268 to 1271. His method of obtaining election to this high post, as described in Domnei, is very similar to that which Dumas, in his Celebrated Crimes, relates of Pope Alexander VI. Historians less well informed than Mr. Cabell say there was no Pope Adrian VII and that, from 1268 to 1271, the papacy was vacant. The events of the "replevined Wednesday" referred to, are more fully set forth in the early chapter of Domnei.
[DR]: This Wikipedia entry describes a satiric novel, Hadrian the Seventh, written by Frederick Rolfe in 1904, in which an Englishman is rather oddly elevated to Pope. He takes the name of Hadrian (or Adrian) VII.
48  Brunbelois — Brunbelois was a mountain in Northumberland in which the fairy Mélusine was fabled to have imprisoned her father, Helymas.
49  Perion de la Forêt — This was the lover of Manuel's eldest daughter, Melicent, and the hero of Domnei. According to The Lineage of Lichfeld, he was the father of Raymondin de la Forêt, who figures in the famous Lusignan legend as the husband of Mélusine.
49  Vicomte de Puysange — This is the philanthropic gentleman who gave his name and title to the child of Jurgen and Félise. It is related in Domnei how Perion, also, for a brief while, stole this same name.
49  Melicent — Melicent was Dom Manuel's eldest child. Her story is related at length in Domnei.
49  Félise de Soyecourt — Later Félise de Puysange. For Jurgen's dealings with her, see the foreword to "The Wedding Jest" in The Line of Love, page 8. One of her descendants was that Florian de Puysange who, in The High Place, so notably conformed to his neighbors' notions of what was proper.
49  Ettarre — For the chaste, but somewhat protracted, love affairs of this youngest of Manuel's daughters, see The Cream of the Jest.
[DR]: Lin Carter's introduction to the 1971 Ballantine Books reprint of The Cream of the Jest includes this comment:
...about "Ettarre", the eternally pursued, ideal woman, it has, not unnaturally, been suggested that she may represent some lost love of Cabell's youth even as Felix Kennaston/Horvendile obviously is meant to represent Cabell himself. This may or may not be so: at any rate, Cabellists usually derive "Ettarre" from the medieval French romances. But only last week, I was browsing through a reference work called Mythology of All Races (Boston, 1918) and, in Volume III, devoted to the Irish myths, I ran across a reference to "Caibell and Etar, rulers of the sid-folk, the sidhe, or Fairies..."
49  Guiron des Rocques — In The Cream of the Jest, Sir Guiron is the most moral and high-minded champion who, for a while, at least, wins the love of Ettarre.
49  Maugis d'Aigremont — This was the hero of a medieval romance, Maugis d'Aigremont et Vivien son Frère. For his place in the legends of Poictesme, where he figures as a lover of Ettarre, see Book First of The Cream of the Jest.
[DR]: Lin Carter's introduction to the 1971 Ballantine Books reprint of The Cream of the Jest speculates that the name Maugis d'Aigremont derives from "the old French romancers".
56  Lisuarte — ?
[DR]: Note a reference in Book 1, Chapter 2, paragraph 1 of
The Cream of the Jest,
". . . The tale narrates how from Naimes to Lisuarte,
and in the wild hill-country back of Perdigon, knights made ready for
the tournament . . ." Lin Carter's introduction to the 1971 Ballantine Books reprint of
The Cream of the Jest
includes this theory:
The town of Lisuarte in Poictesme is mentioned in Chapter II;
if you have ever read the great fantastic romance Amadis of Gaul,
you may remember that the imaginary King of Britain in that book is
named Lisuarte; how typical of Cabell to name a town in his imaginary
realm of Poictesme after an imaginary king in somebody else's romance.
[DR]: Note a reference in Book 1, Chapter 2, paragraph 1 of The Cream of the Jest, ". . . The tale narrates how from Naimes to Lisuarte, and in the wild hill-country back of Perdigon, knights made ready for the tournament . . ."
Lin Carter's introduction to the 1971 Ballantine Books reprint of The Cream of the Jest includes this theory:
61  Holda — Holda was a moon goddess among the primitive Germans.
61  Sclaug — In The Silver Stallion, Sclaug is a vampire in the form of an old, yellow gentleman, with webbed fingers, who goes upon all fours. He is the keeper of a library which contains every book ever written.
61  Phorgemon — ?
61  Will o' the Wisp — The ignis fatuus, of which this is a common name, was thought to be a spirit which led travelers astray.
61  Brachyotus — ?
[BL]: For what it's worth, it means "wide-eared".
[APW]: Brachyotus palustris is the North American short-eared owl.
61  Kitt — "Kit with the canstick" is a hob-goblin mentioned in Reginald Scot's Discovery of Witchcraft. (An excerpt from The Discovery of Witchcraft is posted by Hanover College Department of History; here is the Amazon listing. — DR)
61  Eman Hetan — This was a charm repeated by the witches of the Basses-Pyrenees before flying to the Sabbat.
61  Tom Tumbler — This is another spirit which was used in Scot's day to frighten children.
[BL]: "Scot's day" is a bit unclear – the reference is to Reginald Scot, who published The Discoverie of Witchcraft (containing the reference to Tom Tumbler) in 1584. The reference is, however, to a rather vaguely specified past time, not utterly out of mind, rather than to the immediate present at that time.
61  Stadlin — This was one of the witches in Middleton's play, The Witch (see also Amazon).
61  Marmaritin — Scot mentions "Marmaritin, whereby spirits might be raised."
61  Tib — Mother Demdyke (Elizabeth Southernes), who was tried for witchcraft in England in 1612, confessed that she was led astray by a "spirit or devil in the form of a boy wearing a parti-colored coat of brown-and-black" who was named Tibb.
61  A ab hur hus — This is a cry which Middleton puts in the mouth of one of his witches. Scot gives it as a charm to cure toothache.
61  Bembo — Could this be the same as that "infernal, terrestrial, and celestial Bombo" who is mentioned in an old invocation to Hecate, which is closely paraphrased in Figures of Earth, page 116?
64  Sidon — Sidon was a seaport city of ancient Phenicia: the modern Saida.
[BL]: Unless you want "Phenix" (and "Paleologus"), and you don't, this should be Phoenicia (or Phœnicia).
69  Thragnar — Perhaps Thragnar and certainly the episode with which he is here connected have their origin in the Northern Sagas. In the Saga of Hromund Greipson, Thrain the Viking is discovered, like Thragnar here, seated in an underground place, fully armed, with a kettle of quivering red flames over his head and at his feet three chests of silver. In another saga the demon king Raknar is found by the hero, fifty fathoms under ground, seated in his ship surrounded by five hundred of his men, who breathe jets of vapor from their nostrils. The northern heroes were not so lucky as Jurgen, for they found no maidens with the buried kings and had to fight before they got either treasures or swords. Could the name Thragnar have been made by combining the words Thrain and Raknar?
70  Guenevere — This is the Guenevere made familiar to us by Malory and Tennyson; she is the future wife of King Arthur, the legendary hero of Britain.
70  Gogyrvan — According to ancient Welsh legends, Arthur had three queens and each of them was named Guenevere. The third of these was the daughter of Gogyrvan Gawr. The following rime concerning her was, for a long while, current in Wales:
Gwenhwyvar, the daughter of Gogyrvan the Giant,
Bad when little, worse when great.
[DC]: This Welsh name for Guenevere's giant (Gawr means "giant") father appears in many variants, including Gogrvan, Ogrvan, Ogyrvan, Ogyrfan, Ogrfran, Ogfran, Ocvran, etc.
The Welsh scholar John Rhŷs analyzed the name as Ocur Vran, the evil Bran, where Bran (meaning raven) is the name of an old Celtic deity. Others consider the first element a cognate of the word ogre.
70  Glathion — ?
70  Red Islands — ?
70  Logreus — Logres was a name for certain parts of Britain in the days of King Arthur.
70  Caliburn — Caliburn was another name for Excalibur, King Arthur's magic sword.
71  Miramon Lluagor — Miramon Lluagor, we are told in Figures of Earth, was a noted magician, lord of the kind kinds of sleep and prince of the seven madnesses, who helped Manuel to conquer Poictesme. During Manuel's reign, we learn from The Silver Stallion, he became Seneschal of Gontaron and one of the Fellowship of the Silver Stallion. After Manuel's death he returned to his magic making, and was finally killed by his son, Demetrios.
[DR]: For additional comments, see also the entry for Miramon Lluagor (page 7) in Notes on Figures of Earth.
72  Gihon — ?
[BL]: Gihon is, of course, one of the four rivers that watered Eden. Fancy not knowing that!
It also appears in various places in the Old Testament as the name of a stream near Jerusalem.
73  Artein — ?
74  Crim Tartary — Crim Tartary is now called the Crimea.
78  Cameliard — Cameliard was the land ruled over by Leodegrance, Guenevere's father in the English legends of Arthur.
78  Enisgarth — Perhaps this is the same as Inisguerth, an ancient name for the Isle of Wight.
78  Camwy — ?
[TC]: The Welsh word " camwy" means bending or winding.
78  Sargyll — ?
[TC]: There is a region in western Scotland named Argyll.
79  Arthur — This is the legendary hero of early Britain, who is best known to English readers through Malory's Morte d'Arthur and Tennyson's Idylls of the King.
80  Sornatius — Sornatius is cited by the elder Pliny, but his works have perished.
81  Merlin Ambrosius — Satan, angered at Christ's victory over him, begot a son unlawfully upon a virgin. This son was to possess the wisdom of Socrates, but to teach anti-Christian doctrine. Blaise baptized the infant and saved it from Satan's power. The child was Merlin, the powerful magician of Arthurian romance. At the height of his powers he fell in love with the child Nimuë and rashly taught her certain of his charms; so that, while he was sleeping, she wove about him one of the magic spells he had taught her and imprisoned him forever in an invisible tower. Mr. Cabell's account of Merlin's doings with Nimuë is to be found in Chapter 31 of Something About Eve.
82  Rience of Northgalis — King Rience of North Wales was among Arthur's chief foes. One of Arthur's first acts was to drive him out of Cameliard, which he was ravaging, and so win Guenevere, the daughter of the grateful king of that country. Later Rience, having conquered eleven kings and used their beards with which to embroider his mantle, insultingly demanded Arthur's beard to complete this unique piece of fancy work. He was finally conquered by the knights Balan and Balin, and made to swear allegiance to Arthur.
83  Graemagog — ?
[APW]: Possibly a variation on Gogmagog, a fictional giant of British history named for the Biblical Gog and Magog.
83  Jurgen's reward — It appears that Jurgen was by no means original in the trick he played upon Yolande. Malory, in Book IV, Chapter XXII, of Le Morte d'Arthur, relates, "Will ye, said Sir Gawaine, promise me to do all that ye may, by the faith of your body, to get me the love of my lady? Yea, sir, said she, and that I promise by the faith of my body. Now, said Sir Gawaine, it is yourself that I love so well, therefore I pray you hold your promise. I may not choose, said the Lady Ettard, but if I should be foresworn; and so she granted him to fulfill all his desire."
88  The Lady of the Lake — The Lady of the Lake was a beneficent sorceress in Arthurian legends. The daughter of the godson of the goddess Diana, she dwelt in fairyland, which was concealed by a mirage of water. It was she who gave Arthur his magic sword, Excalibur, and who was present at his death and burial. It was she, also, who stole Lancelot away from his mother and brought him up at the bottom of her lake; and who learned Merlin's secret and shut him up forever in a magic tower. Malory seems to mention two Ladies of the Lake: one who gave the sword to Arthur, and who was beheaded by Balin; and Nimuë, Merlin's love. Originally, however, Nimuë had no connection with the Lady of the Lake.
[BL]: I find myself wondering (and wondering, and wondering) just how the Arthurian legends got crossed with the goddess Diana, and even more how godsons came into it. This looks like rehashed fourth-hand nonsense to me.
88  Carohaise — ?
[APW]: Modern Carahès or Carhaix in Brittany.
96  Ariphus of Belsize — ?
96  Poliger — ?
96  Scleroveus — ?
96  Pisander — Pisander was an early Greek poet, born at Camirus, in the island of Rhodes. He is thought to have flourished about 650 B.C. His poem, Heraclea, deals with the exploits of Heracles.
96  Giarmuid — ?
96  Orc — This is an old name for Orkney.
96  Persaunt — ?
[DR]: The name "Sir Persaunt" appears as one of Arthur's knights in Le Morte d'Arthur. The text can be found online; a search turns up, for example, this.
96  "Lo, for" — Here begins a sonnet, metrically correct but very eccentrically rimed. The riming words are italicized below.
Lo, for I pray to thee, resistless Love,
That thou to-day make cry unto my love,
To Phyllida whom I, poor Logreus, love
So tenderly, not to deny me love!
Asked why, say thou my drink and food is love,
In days wherein I think and brood on love,
And truly find naught good in aught save love,
Since Phyllida hath taught me how to love.
If she avow such constant hate of love
As would ignore my great and constant love,
Plead thou no more! With listless lore of love
Woo Death resistlessly, resistless Love,
In place of her that saith such scorn of love
As lends to Death the lure and grace I love.
[BL]: "Metrically correct" is strange. The riming is part of the metre. It is, however, in iambic pentameter, and divided into octet and sestet.
100  Napsacus — ?
101  Evrawc — This name occurs in The Mabinogion, where Evrawc is the father of Peredur, one of the heroes of that book.
103  Ophelion — Ophelion was an Athenian comic poet, who lived about 380 B.C.
103  Fabianus Papirius — This was a Roman rhetorician and philosopher of a time of Tiberius and Caligula.
103  Sextius Niger — Sextius Niger Quintus was a Roman who lived during the last days of the Republic and under Augustus. He was the founder of a philosophical system which aimed at the improvement of morals on the principles of the Stoics and Pythagoreans. He wrote in Greek.
109  Anaïtis — Anaïtis, or Anahita, was a Persian goddess, and a feminine form, perhaps, of the god Mithra. She was a goddess of fertility and of fertilizing waters; and, according to the Avesta, purified the seed of males and the milk of females, and was invoked by marriageable girls, and by women at the time of childbirth. She is described as a "beautiful maiden, powerful and tall, her girdle fastened high, wrapped in a gold embroidered cloak, wearing earrings, a necklace, and a crown of gold, and adorned with thirty otter skins." At Erez, in Akilisene, there was a sanctuary which contained a golden statue of the goddess. To this sanctuary, which was famous for its wealth, the daughters of the noble families of Armenia used to go and, as a religious rite, prostitute themselves before their marriage. Anaïtis was also worshiped in Cappadocia and Pontus; and at Zela, in Pontus, a festival in her honor, the Sacæ, was held annually. It is hard to say just what grounds, other than those of expediency, Mr. Cabell has for connecting her with the Lady of the Lake. It may be that, in very early times, the Lady of the Lake was a Celtic goddess of fertility (i.e., a love goddess), but all traces of this have disappeared from the later Arthurian legends. It seems that Mr. Cabell intends to present Anaïtis as the universal love goddess, appearing under different names and forms in different lands and ages.
[BL]: Rendering "goddess of fertility" as "love goddess" explicitly is strange. They are not the same, and in the days when they were "officially" confused as a sort of euphemism the former would not be mentioned at all. Similar considerations apply to goddesses of sex – sexual desire, pleasure, and activity – which are yet a third thing.
109  Sir Dodinas le Sauvage — Sir Dodinas is mentioned several times in Le Morte d'Arthur as a knight of King Arthur's court.
109  Earl Roth of Meliot — ?
109  Sir Epinogris — In Le Morte d'Arthur, Sir Ipinogris is mentioned as "the king's son of Northumberland."
109  Sir Hector de Maris — Sir Hector de Maris was the youngest brother of Sir Lancelot, and played a fairly prominent part in the Arthurian legends.
[BL]: This is a strange way to describe Arthur's foster-father!
109  Earl Damas of Listenise — In Le Morte d'Arthur there is a Sir Damas who aided Morgan le Fay in imprisoning Arthur, intending to slay him by treachery.
111  Aribert — ?
111  Urien — This personage, in the various editions of Jurgen, figures under three different names. In the early American editions, he is called Olwen; in the English edition, Orien; and in the later American editions, Urien. In all editions he is mentioned the second time by the name of Urien. This confusion may have been caused by the discovery that Olwen is a feminine name. Urien is probably taken from The Mabinogion where a man so named is the father of Owain, a hero of that book.
111  Pengwaed-Gir — In Welsh myth, Pengwaed is the Land's End, the extreme southern point of Britain.
111  Trooping Fairies — In Celtic lore, this is a name given to the fairies who go about in groups to distinguish them from the solitary fairies, like the Lepracaun, who are always seen alone. The trooping fairies always wear green clothes; the solitary ones, red.
[DR]: This page describes the Trooping Fairies. It's a chapter from an anthology of Irish folklore, edited by W. B. Yeats.
111  Westphalia — Westphalia was an ancient political district of Germany.
111  Neuedesberg — ?
112  King Smoit — The Mabinogion mentions Selyf, the son of Smoit, as one of Arthur's warriors.
[BL]: Lloyd Alexander's "Chronicles of Prydain", at least, suggests that more is known about Smoit from somewhere, though of course I wouldn't take him as an authority.
112  Queen Sylvia Tereu — ?
115  Ursula — The legends goes that Ursula was a British princess who, bound for France with her virgin train, was driven by adverse winds to Cologne, where she and her eleven thousand accompanying virgins were martyred by the Huns. Ursula is the Swabian ursel or hörsel, the moon, and her virgins are the stars.
[BL]: The claim about "Sanctae Ursula et undecim mille virgines" has been plausibly alternatively explained as a mis-reading of something like "Sanctae Ursula et Undecimilla virgines". I am seriously in doubt about "ursel" as relevant. The Greeks saw the Greater and Lesser She-bears (Ursa Major and Ursa Minor) as pushing the sky about the cosmic axis. An association with the moon is intriguing, but may only be a coincidence (or a mistake).
116  Emperor Locrine — Locrine, son of the Trojan Brutus, was left king of all Britain by his father. He was not captured and killed by Corineus, but by his wife Gwendolin, the daughter of Corineus, whom he had cast off in favor of Astrild, the daughter of the king of Germany. His history is related in Book II, Canto X, of The Faerie Queene.
116  Suevetii — ?
116  Gozarin — ?
116  Osnach — ?
116  Corineus — Corineus, a follower of Brutus, killed the giants of Gog and Magog; and for this exploit was made ruler of the western province of Britain, which, in his honor, was called Cornwall.
117  Tyrnog — ?
[DR]: Presumably derived from Tir Na nÓg, which is, in Irish mythology, the Land of Youth, the Field of Happiness, and the Otherworld of the Fairies. A legendary tale tells of how Oisin, one of the great heroes and poets of ancient Ireland, found the gateway and lingered there for 300 years.
Compare to entry for Tir-Nam-Beo, page 187.
117  Craintnor — ?
118  Penpingon Vreichvras ap Mylwald Glasanief — In Welsh names, "ap" means "the son of" and "Vreichvras" is a common Welsh cognomen, meaning "with the brawny arm." The Mabinogion mentions a porter of King Arthur's, called Penpingon.
There is no data for this chapter.
129  Mirror and white pigeons — See, in this connection, Book Second, Chapter VII, and Book Third, Chapter III, of The Cream of the Jest.
[DC]: Cabell fully elucidates the mystery behind the imagery of the mirror and pigeons in Special Delivery: A Packet of Replies, ch. 8, "Mirror and Pigeons".
130  My father — You will recall that "Merlin's father" was reputed to be Satan.
131  Adéres — "But you have things backwards. It was Sereda..." Adéres is Sereda spelled backwards.
132  The Round Table — Leodegrance gave the Round Table, along with a hundred knights to fill its seats, to Arthur as a dowry for Guenevere. It had originally been the property of Uther Pendragon, and seated a hundred and fifty knights.
132  Uther Pendragon — Uther Pendragon was the king of all England, and the father of Arthur.
133  Apollonius Myronides — This was a physician who lived in the first century B.C. He is often identified with Apollonius Herophileius.
133  Myrosis — This book, attributed to Apollonius by Pliny, is thought to be a treatise on unguents.
133  Apollonius Herophileius — This Apollonius was a physician, and the author of a pharmaceutical work. He probably lived in or before the first century B.C.
134  Dirghâgama — ?
[APW]: The Dirghâgama is a Buddhist holy book.
136  The Brown Man — In this chapter The Brown Man closely resembles Pan, the Grecian god of plants and fields, whose unseen presence caused "Panic fear." But in The High Place and Something About Eve, he clearly becomes the everlasting spirit of evil in the world, the "adversary of all the gods of men," whom Christians call Satan. In connection with this episode on Jurgen's life it is interesting to read "The Great God Pan" in Arthur Machen's The House of Souls.
136  Wennofree — The allusion here seems to be to Egyptian theories of what became of the soul after death. The "two truths," for those who are eager for such unblushing veracity, are further elucidated in Part Five of Something About Eve.
142  Bishop of Merion — ?
142  Melchisedek — By certain heretics of the early Church, Melchisedek was believed to be either Christ Himself or the Holy Ghost.
142  Shem — Early heretics called the Sethians believed that Christ was really Shem, the son of Noah.
142  Adam — In several Gnostic sects the First Man – Anthropos or Adamas – occupied a very important place. He stood for pure mind, emanating from God and not yet darkened by contact with matter. This First Man was often confused with the Adam of the Scriptures, and was described as "the Christ, who was from the beginning and is always; who was ever present to every generation, in a hidden manner indeed, yet ever present."
[BL]: "Anthropos" is simply "Human being", of course, and not really a name. It's more like a personification.
142  Logos — The Logos, in Hellenic and Hebrew philosophy, seems to express the idea of immanent reason in the world. Almost every Gnostic and Christian writer of the early Church gave it a different meaning. Some taught that it was an emanation from God; some that it was immanent in God; some that it was the counselor of God; and some that it was the creative power of God, which became the man Jesus.
142  Arians — The Arians were followers of Arius, an early leader in the Church, who held that Christ was not one with God, but a lesser god, created by Him. His doctrines were denied by the Church at the famous council of Nicaea, in 325.
142  Sabellians — These were followers of Sabellius, who taught the unity of God, and that the Trinity merely expressed three states of one and the same God.
[DR]: Note the reference to Sabellius on page 44.
143  Zagreus — Zagreus was a surname for the mystic Dionysus, whom Zeus, in the form of a serpent, is said to have begotten on Persephone before she was carried off by Pluto. He was torn to pieces by the Titans. His remains were buried at Delphi and Athene brought to his heart to Zeus, who swallowed it and thereupon brought forth a new Dionysus, called Iacchus.
143  Acharamoth — Acharamoth – more generally called Sophia Achamoth – was, according to certain branches of the Valentinians, the fallen and degraded Sophia (i.e., divine spirit), or the personification of the material world. Achamoth was to be redeemed and lifted into spiritual purity by marriage with Christ. Mr. Cabell follows Flaubert in this unusual spelling of the word.
143  Valentinians — The Valentinians were followers of Valentinus, who sought to reconcile Gnosticism and Christianity, and was, perhaps, the most prominent leader of the Gnostics.
143  Pantherus — According to early Jewish texts hostile to Christianity, the birth of Jesus was due to an illicit or even adulterous union of his parents. The father was a common soldier, named Pantherus.
[BL]: There are at least two early sources. Origen's "Contra Celsum" preserves some of the work of Celsus, from the third century. Probably earlier (perhaps from the second century) and possibly a source for Celsus, is the anonymous "Toldot Jesho".
143  Kalakau — According to The Encyclopedia Britannica, the followers of Basilidês did not regard Kalakau as a god or as a form of Christ; but as a mystic word which Christ used in His ascent to and descent from heaven. They believed that, armed with this word, they could conquer all the demons that sought to hinder their passage to the highest heaven. Mr. Cabell follows Flaubert who, in The Temptation of St. Anthony, makes Basilidês say that "the Savior with all his virtues" is called Kaulakau.
143  Basilidês — Basilidês was one of the most celebrated of the early Gnostic teachers. He lived in Alexandria, probably in the early part of the second century. His actual beliefs are not known and have been the subject of much controversy.
143  Docetes — The Docetês were an early heretical sect that maintained that Jesus Christ was God only, and that His visible form was merely a phantom.
143  Merinthians — Merinthians was an infrequent, and perhaps derogatory, name (Merinthus – noose) applied to the Cerinthians, the followers of Cerinthus. Cerinthus taught that the world was not created by the real God, but by one of God's inferior angels, who became the God of the Jews; that Jesus was a mortal, the son of Joseph and Mary, and that, after his baptism, Christ descended to him in the form of a dove.
144  Lancelot — Sir Lancelot, son of King Ban of Benwick and heir to the kingdom of France, was the bravest and greatest of Arthur's knights. When still a child, he was stolen from his mother by the Lady of the Lake, and brought up by her in her domain of Fairyland. His love for Guenevere caused the breaking up of the Fellowship of the Round Table, and led to the wars in which Arthur met his death.
145  Cocaigne — Cocaigne was a medieval Utopia wherein "the rivers were of wine, the houses were built of cake and barley-sugar, the streets were paved with pastry, and the shops supplied goods for nothing. Roast geese and fowls wandered about inviting folks to eat them, and buttered larks fell from the skies." The name is now used to designate a land that is perfect in every way.
148  Anistar and Calmoora — The curious probably can find the only satisfying account of this couple in Gerald Musgrave's privately printed and extremely rare Myth of Anistar and Calmoora, the writing of which by the Sylan is described in Something About Eve.
149  Procris — According to the ancients, the life of Procris was a series of domestic tragedies. While her husband, Cephalos, was held captive by Eos, the Dawn, who loved him, Procris met Minos and cured him of an evil charm, put upon him by his wife Pasiphaë, whereby he must fall in love with every woman whom he saw and work harm by that loving. Cephalos returned, disguised as another, and successfully wooed his wife. When he threw off the disguise, however, and revealed himself as her husband, her affection for him was so genuine that he forgave her for yielding. As a token of her love she gave to him a magic javelin which Minos had given her, and which could not miss its mark. With this javelin he hunted so frequently that Procris grew jealous. She followed him upon one of his hunting trips and, hiding near his hunting place, heard him invoking the breeze. His words were ardent, and his wife, not quite understanding them, thought they were addressed to some more tangible maiden. In her grief she forgot caution and made a movement that caused the bushes to rustle. Cephalos, thinking that some wild beast made the sound, hurled his unerring javelin at the spot and killed his wife.
149  Minos and Pasiphaë — In classic mythology, Minos aimed at supremacy over Crete, and declared that is was destined to him by the gods, asserting as proof that the gods always answered his prayers. In offering up a sacrifice to Poseidon, he prayed that a bull might come forth from the sea, and promised to sacrifice the beast. The bull appeared, and Minos became king of Crete. However, his admiration for the bull was so great that he kept him and sacrificed another in his place; whereupon Poseidon rendered the bull furious and made Pasiphaë, the wife of Minos, conceive a passion for the animal. Daedalus, the artizan, constructed a wooden cow, by means of which Pasiphaë might gratify her passion, and she became the mother of the Minotaur, a monster half animal and half man.
[DC]: It should be noted that the ritual here parodies Aleister Crowley's "Ecclesiæ Gnosticæ Catholicæ Canon Missæ" (Gnostic Mass).
151  Venus Mechanitis — That is, Venus the Contriver, usually of unnatural devices.
151  Khepre — Kheperi was the Egyptian name for the dung beetle, or tumblebug, which lays its egg in a ball of dung and compacts the pellet by rolling it up hill with its hind legs and allowing it to roll back down again. The Egyptians compared the pellet to the sun, and held the insect sacred to the sun-god. It is the original of the well-known scarab. In the sixty-second chapter of The Silver Stallion, this beetle again appears, under the name of Khypera, and shapes a world much after the same fashion as the Egyptians thought this world to have been shaped.
152  Jigsbyed — This was probably one of the demons worshiped by some of the disciples of Lamaism, a corrupt form of Buddhism once prevalent in Tibet. Statuettes of the god, similar to the one here described, actually existed.
152  Tangaro Loloquong — In Melanesian mythology, Tangaro Loloquong, the Fool, is the eleventh and youngest brother of Qat, the chief god. All that Qat does, Tangaro Loloquong tries to undo.
152  Legba — Legba is the love god of Dahomey, a French colony in West Africa. He is represented by a phallus, and the honey bees, nature's fertilizers, are his messengers. The worship of the gods of Dahomey was of a licentious description, and wholesale human sacrifices were of frequent occurrence.
153  St. Cosmo and St. Damianus — Cosmo and Damianus were brothers who lived in the third and fourth centuries. They were brought up Christians, received an excellent education, and entered the medical profession because they could thus most benefit their fellows. They were put to death with extreme tortures during the persecution by Diocletian, A.D. 303-311.
153  St. Guignole — Guignole was a saint born in the Amorique of a family of Gaulish princes. He founded the monastery of Landevenec, near Brest, and submitted his body to the most extreme austerities.
[BL]: I think "Amorique" should be "Armorique" – that is, Brittany.
153  St. Foutin de Varailles— This was a French saint whose name so closely resembles a certain indelicate word as to give rise to embarrassing legends. (the relevant French verb is foutre; the Wikipedia entry will explain all. — DR)
156  Eumenidês — Eumenidês, meaning "the good tempered goddesses," was a name given to the Furies by the Greeks, who considered it bad policy to call them by their right name of Erinyes. They were Tisiphonê, Alecto and Megaera.
[DR]: 156  "There is no law in Cocaigne save, Do that which seems good to you." —
See the entry for Theleme, page 187. Also, this
sounds like the "Wiccan Rede" (the following notes taken from
The original source for at least part of the Wiccan Rede appears to be
by a 16th century novelist, François Rabelais.
This concept appears to have been adopted by Aleister Crowley
(Crowley was a Satanist, an occultist, and seems to have been at
best seriously misunderstood and at worst a rather creepy kook)
(1875-1947) in his Law of Thelema which is contained in his 1904 book
Liber AL vel Legis (The Book of the Law). Many believe that Crowley
received the text of the Law from an angelic entity named Aiwass: Thus the first of Crowley's two commandments is
"Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law."
An it harm none, do what thou wilt.
DO AS THOU WILT because men that are free, of gentle birth, well bred
and at home in civilized company possess a natural instinct that
inclines them to virtue and saves them from vice. This instinct they
name their honor.
Who calls us Thelemites will do no wrong, if he look but close into
the word. For there are therein Three Grades, the Hermit, and the
Lover, and the man of Earth. Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of
156  "There is no law in Cocaigne save, Do that which seems good to you." — See the entry for Theleme, page 187. Also, this sounds like the "Wiccan Rede" (the following notes taken from this page):
The original source for at least part of the Wiccan Rede appears to be by a 16th century novelist, François Rabelais.
This concept appears to have been adopted by Aleister Crowley (Crowley was a Satanist, an occultist, and seems to have been at best seriously misunderstood and at worst a rather creepy kook) (1875-1947) in his Law of Thelema which is contained in his 1904 book Liber AL vel Legis (The Book of the Law). Many believe that Crowley received the text of the Law from an angelic entity named Aiwass:
Thus the first of Crowley's two commandments is "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law."
162  Yogini — The Yoginis were sorceresses or ogresses in attendance upon Kali, the dreadful Hindu goddess of the Thugs.
162  Indawadi — ?
[APW]: Indawadi is a village in Madhya Pradesh, India.
162  Muntrus — Muntrus, or mantras, were religious and magic charms or incantations used in the Vedic rites.
162  Sacti Sodhana — In certain Hindu religious books, the sacti sodhana is described as a sacred banquet, at which the object of worship is a naked girl, ornamented with jewels and flowers. It terminates with licentious orgies among the votaries.
166  Library — The Library of Cocaigne resembles, in several respects, that library which Tiberius Caesar had at Capri; and is, perhaps, modeled after it.
166  Priapos — Priapos was a son of Dionysus and Aphrodite, and a god of the fruitfulness of fields and herds. He was generally represented by a rude wooden figure, stained with red and having a huge phallus.
[BL]: There seems to be inconsistency in Latinizing Greek names like Priapos/Priapus.
167  Apis — Apis was the bull deity of Memphis, and an incarnation of Ptah, the creative deity. He is said to have been born of a cow that was impregnated by a stroke of lightning from heaven. He was black in color, with a white mark on his forehead, a mark like a half moon on his back, and a lump of flesh like a scarab under his tongue.
167  Ba of Mendes — Ba, the god peculiarly sacred to the city of Mendes, was worshipped under the form of a goat.
[BL]: The worship of Ba was regarded with conspicuous prudish fascination by Herodotus. Hence "the goat of Mendes" as a ponderous way of referring to Satan as presiding over cultic sex (this even wandered, possibly by way of Dennis Wheatley, into Hammer horror).
[DC]: This passage deserves explanation:
"And your female relatives are just as annoying, with their eternal whispered enigmas, and their crescent moons, and their mystic roses that change color and require continual gardening, and their pathetic belief that I have time to fool with them. And the entire pack practises symbolism until the house is positively littered with asherahs and combs and phalloses and linghams and yonis and arghas and pulleiars and talys, and I do not know what other idiotic toys that I am continually stepping on!"
Asherah — (Hebrew AShRH): a phallic wooden post or pillar representing the goddess Asherah. In the King James Bible, the word is mistranslated "grove". (Contrast the KJV passage to the NIV passage — DR) In The High Place: A Comedy of Disenchantment, Cabell has Janicot (a name for the devil of the witch-cult) sitting upon an "asherah stone".
Comb — The Greek kteis or cteis means a comb, a yoni, or a comb considered as a yonic symbol. In Something About Eve: A Comedy of Fig-Leaves, we find this passage: "And when they approached the adytum, the head priestess came toward them exhibiting a cteis, or large copper comb, which she offered to Tenjo. The King accepted it, he parted her hair in the middle, and he spoke the Word of Entry."
Lingham — Also spelt lingam, linga, etc., this is the phallos, particularly when considered as symbolizing the masculine religious principle, or a stylized representation thereof, used in the worship of the Hindu god Shiva.
Yoni — The female genitalia, especially when considered as representing the feminine religious principle, or a stylized representation thereof, used in the worship of a Hindu goddess or Shakti.
Argha — From Sanskrit, an ark or ship, or a model thereof, especially one so fashioned that the hull represents the yoni, and the mast the lingham.
Pulleiar — John Davenport's Aphrodisiacs and Anti-Aphrodisiacs (Cabell's evident source) says:
Besides the lingham, the equally significant yoni or cteis is to be seen, being the female organ of generation. It is sometimes single, often in conjunction, for the Indians, believing that the emblem of fecundity might be rendered more energetic by combining the organs of both sexes, did so unite them, giving to this double symbol the name of pulleiar, confounded by some writers with the lingham itself. This pulleiar is highly venerated by the sectarian worshippers of Siva (the third god of the Trimourti), who hang it round their neck as a charm or amulet, or, enclosing it in a small box, fasten it upon their arm.
Taly — (Tamil tāli; in English also spelt thali, tali): Again, John Davenport, Cabell's evident source:
The Indians have also a little jewel called taly, worn, in like manner, by females round their necks as a charm. It is presented to them on their wedding day by their husbands, who receive it from the hands of the Brahmins. Upon these jewels is engraved the representation, either of the lingham or of the pulleiar.
Davenport quotes Sonnerat's Voyage aux Indes Orientales et à la Chine:
A Capuchin missionary had a serious dispute the Jesuits residing at Pondicherry, which was referred for decision to the judicial courts. The disciples of Loyola, who can be toleration itself when toleration furthers their crafty and ambitious views, had declined all interference with the above custom. M. Tournon, the Pope's legate apostolic, who regarded the matter as one not to be trifled with, and with whom, moreover, the Jesuits were no favourites, strictly prohibited the taly, enjoining all female converts to substitute in its place either a cross or a medal of the Virgin. The Indian women, strongly attached to their ancient customs, refused obedience. The missionaries, apprehensive of losing the fruits of their zealous labours, and seeing the number of their neophytes daily diminishing, entered into a compromise by adopting a mezzo-termine with the females in question, and it was agreed that a cross should be engraved upon the taly, an arrangement by which the symbol of Christian salvation was coupled with that of the male and female pudenda.
167  Sacæ — The Sacæ was a festival in honor of Anaïtis, held annually at Zela, in Pontus.
168  Hortanes — ?
[APW]: A pagan Iberian fertility god.
168  Fricco — Fricco was another name for Freyr, a fertility and love god of Sweden and Iceland. He is associated with the boar.
168  Vul — Vul was the Assyrian god of atmosphere.
168  Baal-Peor — Baal-Peor was the Priapus of the Moabites and Midianites.
169  Sekhmet — Sekhmet, or Sekhet, was an Egyptian goddess who personified the destructive heat of the sun. She was represented with the head of a lioness.
169  Io — Io was the daughter of the river god, Inachus. She was beloved by Jupiter who, to escape detection by Juno, was forced to change her into a heifer. In this shape she was long persecuted by the jealous goddess, but finally regained her human form.
169  Derceto — Derceto was a Syrian fish goddess.
169  Thoueris — This is Ta-urt or Taueret, an Egyptian goddess of maternity, whose symbol was the female hippopotamus.
169  The Ephesian Diana — Diana of Ephesus was goddess of the moon and a power of nature. Unlike most moon goddesses, she was not regarded as a virgin, but as a mother and foster mother. The illustrations in the encyclopedias justify Jurgen's description of her.
[BL]: The Ephesian Diana was in fact Cybele, assimilated to Diana. Her normal cultic offering was the scrotum of a bull. The "many breasts" of Cybele are in fact votive scrota hung round her neck. This explains the association with virginity (well, sort of), and so the identification with Diana. Despite the text, moon goddesses as such aren't necessarily virgins – a wild generalization from Artemis/Diana.
169  Tammouz — This was a Syrian deity, whose festival was celebrated by weeping and wailing among his worshipers.
176  Stylites — The Stylites were pillar saints, that is, hermits who made their residence on top of a small platform, perched on top of a pillar, sometimes sixty feet high. To further assure their salvation, they spent hours at a time in uncomfortable positions, or in repeating mechanical actions. The most famous pillar saints were Simeon of Syria and Daniel of Constantinople.
176  Thebaid — The Thebaid was one of the three great divisions of ancient Egypt. Its capital was Thebes, and the deserts surrounding this city were the favorite dwelling places of Christian hermits.
176  Astyanassa — Astyanassa is said to have been a daughter of Musaeus and a slave of Helen's, and to have composed poems on immodest subjects. Her actual existence is very doubtful.
176  Elephantis — Elephantis was the author of erotic books, and is supposed to have been a woman. Of her personality nothing is known.
176  Sotadês — Sotadês was a Greek poet from Thrace, who lived in Alexandria under Ptolemy Philadelphus about 276 B.C. For some sarcastic remark about the marriage of his own sister, Arsinoë, with the king, he is said to have been drowned in the sea in a leaden chest. He composed, in Ionic dialect, malicious satires, partly on indelicate subjects. He invented a form of verse which reads forwards and backwards the same ("Lewd did I live & evil I did dwel"), and which was named after him, Sotadic.
176  Spintrian Treatises — It is not difficult to guess the character of these treatises when we recall that Tiberius Caesar had at Capri a troupe of men and women, especially trained in sexual perversities, whom he called spintriae.
176  Asan of Cyrenê — For an account of pictures similar to those here described, see the Terminal Essay to Burton's edition of The Arabian Nights.
Richard Burton's unexpurgated translation of The Arabian
Nights includes a number of episodes that are raw and raunchy and
politically incorrect, even
by modern standards.
Volume 10 of Richard Burton's
The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night,
which includes the Terminal Essay.
A web page hosted by
Fordham University, in a section
that focuses on homosexuality in history, has
Section D of the Terminal Essay
(presumably this is the section that is particularly relevant to
the practices of Cocaigne)
in a slightly more readable format.
Their preface explains:
Richard Burton's ten-volume translation of the The Arabian
followed by a "Terminal Essay" addressing a number of interpretative
issues. Section D addressed "pederasty". Although Burton is careful to
use words like "vice" and "inversion", this essay represents one of
the earliest modern efforts to collect and make known both
cross-cultural and historica information about "homosexuality" (a word
not used by Burton).
176  Æsred — Æsred is an anagram for Sereda, the letters being transposed in the order of 6-2-1-3-4-5. In his Salammbo, Gustave Flaubert describes a similar picture of a woman, painted upon the ceiling of one of the rooms in the temple of Tanit at Carthage.
178  Acheron — According to post-Homeric legend, Acheron was the son of Helios and Gaea. He was changed into the river of the lower world, bearing his name, because he had refreshed the Titans with drink, during their contest with Zeus.
179  Ecbatana — This was the capital city of the empire of Media. It was founded about 710 B.C. by Dejoces, the first king of the Medes, and retained its splendor down to the Christian period.
179  Lesbos — Lesbos is a large island off the coast of Asia Minor. It is famous as the home of Sappho.
[MK]: "Cantrap" is an old Scottish word for a magic spell.
183  John the Twentieth — There can be no disputing the Master Philologist's words; there really was no pope of this name.Pedro Guiliano-Rebulo, who succeeded Adrian V and who held the papal chair from September 8, 1276 to May 20, 1277, was, due to an error in the reckoning caused by the insertion of an anti-pope, named John XXI.
186  Atlantis — Atlantis was a fabulous continent, supposed by the ancients to have been submerged beneath the Western Seas. Plato was the first to mention it, and even recently huge tomes have been written to prove that its ruins still lie beneath the waters of the Atlantic. Here, as in other mythical lands, Time was thought to be asleep, guarded by Briareus.
186  Briareus — Briareus was a mythological giant who had fifty heads and a hundred hands.
187  Inislocha — ?
187  Inis Daleb — ?
[APW]: One of the four paradises of the world in Irish myth, the others being Inislocha to the west, Inis Ercandra to the north and Adam's Paradise to the east.
187  Inis Ercandra — ?
187  Rhiannon — In The Mabinogion, Rhiannon is a queen possessed of magic powers. The song of the birds of Rhiannon was so sweet that warriors, listening to them, remained spellbound for eighty years.
187  Land of Women — ?
187  Ogygia — This was the mythical island inhabited by the enchantress of Calypso. Homer places it in the very center of the sea, far from all lands.
[BL]: One reason for mentioning "Ogygia" is that in this interesting conflation of Celtic and Classical material, Ireland was sometimes identified with Ogygia – as in the book of that name by Roderic O'Flaherty.
187  Tryphême — This was the realm of Pierre Louys' King Pausole.
187  Susarsana — ?
187  Fortunate Islands — Among the ancients this was another name for the Islands of the Blest, a terrestrial paradise in the Atlantic.
187  Aeaea — This was the island where Circé dwelt, and where she received Ulysses' men and turned them into swine.
187  Caer-Is — This was the drowned Breton city of Is.
[TC]: Is perhaps more commonly rendered Ker-Ys, or the City of Ys these days.
187  Invallis — Sebosus, according to Pliny, gives this as one of the Fortunate Islands. It is so named on account of its undulating surface.
187  Hesperides — In classic mythology, the isle of the Hesperides contained the golden apples, the obtaining of which was one of the twelve labors of Hercules.
187  Meropis — Meropis was another mythical island of the Western Seas.
187  Planasia — This was another of the Fortunate Islands, named thus from the smoothness of its appearance.
187  Uttarra — ?
187  Avalon — In Welsh mythology, Avalon was the kingdom of the dead. Afterwards, it became a paradise of the western seas; and it was to this abode of heroes that, after his last battle, King Arthur was conveyed.
187  Tir-Nam-Beo — This is clearly a Celtic paradise; probably the tir na mban (Land of Maidens) of the great Irish epic, the Tain Bo Cualnge.
[DR]: Some web sites specify Tir-Nam-Beo as the "Land of the [Ever] Living", as contrasted to Tir Na nÓg (see entry for Tyrnog, page 117), which is the "Land of the [Ever] Youthful".
187  Theleme — Thelême is an abbey described in the Gargantua of Rabelais. It was designed to be the direct opposite of all other abbeys; and was filled with beautiful ladies and honorable men, who spent their time in all the pleasures of a courtly life. The motto above the door was, "Facez que Voudras." Mr. Cabell, it will be remembered, has already paraphrased this motto for the law of Cocaigne, "Do that which seems good to you."
[BL]: Slightly mangled: it should be "Fay ce que Voudras".
188  Leukê — Leukê was an island in the Euxine Sea, near the mouth of the Borysthenes. Here, according to post-Homeric myth, the souls of the ancient heroes were placed, as in the Elysian Fields. Here also, to prevent strife, the shade of Helen was united to that of Achilles, so that no lesser hero might hope to win her.
188  Calpurnius Bassus — This is a writer mentioned by Pliny but otherwise unknown. It is thought that he lived in the reign of Caligula or Tiberius.
189  Aillê — ?
193  Pseudopolis — False city?
[BL]: "Pseudopolis" can also mean "City of liars".
193  Achilles — Achilles as the hero of the Iliad, and the greatest of the Grecian warriors.
193  The Swan's Daughter — Jupiter, the father of Helen, wooed her mother, Leda, in the form of a swan.
193  Adês — ([DR]: AKA Hades) In classic myth, this was the name of the ruler of the lower regions.
195  "Other head-gear" — Jurgen here refers to the fact that horns affixed to the head have been, since time immemorial, the sign of a cuckold.
195  Thersitês — This was a deformed and scurrilous officer of the Greek army at the siege of Troy. Thersitês ridiculed the grief of Achilles over the body of the queen of the Amazons, whom Achilles had slain, and was killed by the hero.
196  Eubonia — Eubonia was an ancient name for the Isle of Man.
197  Yggdrasill — In Scandinavian myth, Yggdrasill was the Tree of Life, a great ash tree whose branches were said to support the entire universe. Its roots ran in three directions; one to the gods in heaven, one to the Frost Giants, and one to the underworld.
197  The Undar Fountain — The Undar fountain lies at the foot of Yggdrasill. It is guarded by the all-wise giant, Mimir, and to drink of its waters brings absolute wisdom.
197  Norns — The norns are the three Fates of Scandinavian myth: Urd, the Past; Verdandi, the Present; and Skuld, the Future.
198  Æolic Saying — The poets who composed in the Æolic dialect dealt mostly with erotic subjects. Could this have been given to any sentence with a double, and improper, meaning the title of Æolic saying? Or is the adjective derived from the name of the gods of winds, Æolius, so that is signifies "windy?"
199  Psychê — Psychê was married to Cupid only on the condition that she should never see her husband.
201  Jugatinus — This was a Roman domestic deity, who joined the man and woman in the yoke of marriage.
202  Lares and Penates — The Lares and Penates were Roman household gods. The Lares were regarded as the souls of ancestors; while the Penates were more impersonal spirits.
203  Virgo — Virgo was a minor Roman marriage deity, whose duty was to unfasten the bride's girdle.
203  Mutinus — Mutinus was a Roman deity corresponding to the Greek Priapus. The Roman matrons, and particularly newly married ones, disgraced themselves by the obscene ceremonies which custom obliged them to observe before this impure god.
203  Domiducus — This was a surname for Jupiter in his capacity as god of marriage. Domiducus was supposed to carry the bride into the house of the bridegroom.
203  Subigo — This was another marriage deity, whose duty was to place the bride in bed.
203  Praema — This deity opened the bride's arms and whispered sweet words in her ear.
204  Runcina, etc. — Jurgen's neighbors, mentioned in this paragraph, are all minor Roman deities who performed the tasks here assigned to them.
206  Terminus — Terminus was the Roman god of boundaries and frontiers. Under his special protection were the stones which marked territorial limits.
207  Harpocrates — Harpocrates was the Greek form of the Egyptian god, Har-pi-kruti (Horace-the-Child). The Egyptian god was represented with his finger to his mouth to indicate youth, but the Greeks and Romans, misunderstanding, made him the god of silence.
207  Eudæmonism — Eudæmonism is an ethical term given various meanings by various philosophers. Mr. Cabell here seems to use it as a synonym for hedonism in its narrowest form; that is, the belief that man's highest good comes from gratification of the senses. It is, however, generally used to designate just the opposite of this, and is applied to systems that regard mental pleasure rather than sensual pleasure as the chief desideratum.
208  Silenus — Silenus was a Satyr who always accompanied the god Bacchus. He was a jovial old man with a bald head and a blunt nose. He was generally drunk, and as fat and round as the wine bag he always carried with him. He was an inspired prophet, who knew all the past and the most distant future.
208  Protogonus — In Phenician myth, Protogonus was the son of the primeval deities, Colpas and Bau (wind and night), and the brother of Aeon, the first man.
211  "Who this was" — This new form under which Sereda is masquerading is that of Cybele, the Great Mother of the Gods. Cybele was a goddess of Phrygian origin, whose symbol, a small meteoric stone, was transferred, in 204 B.C., from Pessinus to Rome, in order to save the latter city from invasion by Hannibal. Her worship, with that of her lover, Attis (whose life and resurrection very closely paralleled that of Christ), was one of the chief foes with which Christianity had to contend. The priests of Cybele and Attis were half-mad worshipers, called Corybantes, and eunuchs, called Galloi, who wore their hair long and dressed in women's clothes. In their ceremonies, these priests danced themselves into a frenzy, scourging and lacerating themselves, hurling their bleeding, severed members at the image of the goddess. It was obviously just such a ceremony as this that so terrified Jurgen.
[BL]: Cybele again: the priests of Cybele (sometimes) castrated themselves and made a votive offering of their own scrota – not their "members", unless it is being used in a generalised sense. I doubt whether the scrota were thrown – I suspect they were hung up among the other votive offerings over her chest. But maybe they did (they had wild parties, those old priests of Cybele).
212  Ziph — ?
[APW]: Might be a pun on Cabell's name, along with Eglington below. Ziph is a town of Judah with a smelter mentioned in Joshua, and the first Biblical metal worker was Tubell Cain.
212  Eglington — ?
[APW]: Eglington is a town in Northumberland, and later Eglington Point became Abell's Cape.
212  Poissieux — ?
212  Gazden — ?
212  Bäremburg — Certainly no geography exists that places these cities within the limits of Eubonia, or of any other land.
213  Zorobasiuses and Ptolemopiters — Chloris also sometimes quotes her authorities.
[TC]: Lin Carter holds these guys are fictional in his appendices to his Terra Magica books.
215  Summer of Alcyonê — This is a period of seven days before and seven days after the shortest day of the year, during which the winds do not blow. Alcyonê (or Halcyonê) was, in Greek mythology, the daughter of Æolius; and the wife of Ceyx. Ceyx was drowned and his body, cast on the shore, was found by his wife. The gods, out of compassion for her grief, changed both her and her husband into kingfishers; and, by command of Zeus, the winds do blow during their brooding season, lest their eggs by washed out to sea.
217  Horvendile — Horvendile is the name Mr. Cabell takes when he enters his own romances. In reading of Horvendile is must be remembered that he is always conscious that the other characters are but creations of his own imagination, and puppets with which he may do as he pleases. This, of course, does not apply to The Cream of the Jest, for in that book Horvendile is the double of Felix Kennaston and not of Mr. Cabell. In this connection see Book First, Chapter VI, of The Cream of the Jest; and page 46 of Figures of Earth.
[MK]: Horvendile is an anagram of "hinder love"
[DR]: If you want to play the anagram game, it also devolves into "hired novel" and "horned evil", not to mention "hone drivel" or "devil honer" or even "veiled horn" or maybe "devil her on". (But Cabell probably didn't consider "Oh, evil nerd".)
[BL]: Sorry to disappoint everyone, but "Horvendile" (so spelt, anagram or not) is a late Frenchified form of a name earlier attested as Aurvandil or Orwandil. This was a companion of Thor who suffered frost-bite in a journey. Thor broke off his great toe (or both of them?) and threw it into the sky as a star. It has traditionally been identified with Alcor, next to the end of the handle in the Big Dipper. The other toe is Rigel, Orion's left foot, if both toes are intended.
The name appears as the name of the star itself later, and in Old English as "earendel", in which form Tolkien found it, and eventually produced the tale of Eärendil the Mariner, who yet voyages over the world (or does he? the cosmology isn't quite clear) with the Silmaril bound on his brow. The transformation of Orwandil's toe is one of the oddest known to literature.
Cabell does refer to "the great toe of Horvendile" somewhere.
[DR]: Lin Carter's introduction to the 1971 Ballantine Books reprint of The Cream of the Jest observes the connections between Cabellian names and historical literature, and speculates that "[The name] 'Horvendile' derives ultimately from Saxo Grammaticus."
For additional comments, see also the entry for Horvendile (page 46) in Notes on Figures of Earth. This passage also explains the "great toe" reference, noted above in the [BL] section.
217  Theodoret — This monarch is mentioned in Domnei and Figures of Earth. Perion de la Forêt served as his general against Demetrios and Dom Manuel aided him when he was attacked by the Easterlings.
217  Lacre Kai — This city is mentioned in nearly all the romances dealing with the early history of Poictesme. According to a passage in Part VIII of Straws and Prayer-books, it was over thirteen centuries old.
220  "Instantly vanish" — The curious may find this discussed at length in The Cream of the Jest.
221  "Characters out of three separate romances" — These are, of course, really "characters out of three separate romances which the Author has composed in different styles": Perion from Domnei, Horvendile from The Cream of the Jest, and Jurgen from this book.
224  Coalisnacoan — This is a Gaelic word meaning The Ferry of Dogs.
224  Phobetor — Phobetor was the son of Morpheus, and a dream god. Does this imply that the events of this chapter are merely dreamed by Jurgen?
224  Ajax Telemon — Ajax, the son of Telemon, was one of the chief heroes of the Iliad.
224  Salamis — Salamis was an island near the coast of Greece. Ajax ruled here, as the chief god and protector of the island, only after he was dead.
224  Philoctetês — This was another of the heroes of the Iliad. He had been present at the death of Hercules and possessed his poisoned arrows, which the dying giant had given him. These arrows, said an oracle, were essential to the capture of Troy.
224  Odysseus — Odysseus (Ulyssess) was the wisest of the Greeks. His adventures form the theme of Homer's Odyssey, Mr. Cabell's version of which is to be found in Chapter 29 of Something About Eve.
224  Agamemnon — Agamemnon was king of Mycenæ and the brother-in-law of Helen. He was made commander-in-chief of the Greeks before Troy.
230  Ageus — Ageus is an obvious anagram for "usage." Age/us — us/age.
230  Vel-Tyno — Vel-Tyno is also an anagram, this time for another word very potent with the American Philistines, "novelty." Vel-Ty/no — no/velty. [See also page 115 of Notes on Figures of Earth.]
231  Libnah — Libnah, in the Bible, is always the name of a place and not of a man. Perhaps this is intended for Libni, the son of Gershon (Exodus, Ch. 6, v. 17).
231  Goliath — Goliath is known to every Sunday School scholar as the Philistine giant who succumbed to David's sling-shot.
231  Gershon — Gershon was the son of Levi, and gave his name to one of the families of Israel. He seems to have been in no way connected with Philistines ( Exodus, Ch. 6, v. 16; Numbers, Ch. 3, v. 17).
231  Pelidês — This word, meaning "son of Peleus," was a name of Achilles.
237  Praxagoras of Cos — Praxagoras, who lived in the fourth century B.C., was a physician of great merit. He belonged to the medical sect of the Dogmatici and was celebrated for his knowledge of medical sciences in general and especially for his attainments in anatomy and physiology. He was one of the chief defenders of the humeral pathology, which placed the seat of all diseases in the humors of the body.
237  Dogmatici — The Dogmatic School of Medicine was founded by Hippocrates, and was so called because it set forth certain dogmas, which it made the basis of practice.
240  Sesphra — The name of this third god of the Philistines is an anagram for "phrases." Ses/phra — phra/ses. For the Cabellian origin of the god, see Figures of Earth, Chapter 14. Sesphra is the deformed figure that Dom Manuel made out of clay, and to which Queen Freydis of Audela gave life.
243  Gowlais — ?
243  Stevegonius — ?
243  Diet of Orthumar — ?
243  Vossler — ?
244  Zanchius — The priest of Sesphra evidently had been reading the section on Religious Melancholy in Richard Burton's [that should be Robert Burton, not Richard Burton! —DR] Anatomy of Melancholy, for Zanchius is often mentioned therein. The Latin sentence just above is probably remembered from that book also, for Burton writes of a "pestilent book . . . quem sine horrore non legas."
244  Faventinus — At the end of Part 3, Section 4, Member 2, Subsection 2, of The Anatomy of Melancholy, Burton cites Faber Faventinus, along with Zanchius and the others mentioned in this paragraph, as an authority against atheism. Faventinus wrote in Latin.
244  Lelius Vincentius — According to Burton, Lelius Vincentius was the author of a book on the immortality of the soul.
244  Lagalla — Burton writes, "Amongst others consult with Julius Caesar Lagalla, professor of philosophy in Rome, who hath written a large volume of late to confute atheists."
244  Thomas Giaminus — This writer is also recommended by Burton.
There is no data for this chapter.
251  Trapdoor — Quite a few persons, we may believe, have descended into Hell through a trapdoor, generally assisted, however, by a rope around their necks.
251  "Water into Hell" — Since the Hell of Jurgen's fathers later shows a marked resemblance to the United States, this sentence is probably aimed at Prohibition, an object of Mr. Cabell's especial animosity.
251  Dithican — In The History of the Damnable Life and Deserved Death of Dr. John Faustus (hereinafter called The History of Dr. Faustus), Dithican was described as a devil in the "form of a large bird, with shining feathers, and four feet; his neck green, and body red, and his feet black."
251  Noumaira — This empire, fallen from its high estate to that of a mere duchy, plays an important part in the later chapters of Gallantry.
251  Amaimon — Amaimon was one of the chief devils of Hell. His dominions were on the north side of the infernal gulf.
253  Barathum — The History of Dr. Faustus names this as one of the ten kingdoms of Hell.
[BL]: "Barathum" was to be finely taken up by the excellent Mr. Briggs, in the form "Barathrum", for a Bogey's bathroom.
A helpful reader at Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Nova Scotia
noted this definition from an online
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities:
BARATHRON, also called ORUGMA, was a deep pit at
hooks on the sides, into which criminals were cast. It was situate in
the demus ("dem" as in democracy; an administrative region?)
Κειρισδω (or something
like that). It is mentioned as early as the
Persian wars, and
continued to be employed as a mode of punishment in the time of the
orators. The executioner was called (a Greek phrase that I won't try
to enter). It corresponded to the Spartan Ceadas (a deep cavern or
chasm into which the Spartans were accustomed to thrust persons
condemned to death).
He goes on to note that the term "Barathron" is
commemorated in astronomy in the terms "[peri/ap]barathron", meaning the
extreme points of an orbit around a black hole.
253  Lucifer — Lucifer means "the proud one." In The History of Dr. Faustus, he is ruler of the eastern part of Hell, and is described as sitting "in the manner of a man all hairy, but of brown color like a squirrel, curled, and his tail turning upwards on his back as the squirrels use."
[BL]: "Lucifer" does NOT mean "the proud one". (What a bizarre idea.) It means "The bringer of light". At least sometimes it is applied to the morning star. Hence various punning references to Christ as the Morning Star, at least in Latin; for instance, the Paschal Praeconium has "ille lucifer, qui nescit occasum" – that morning star / lucifer that knows no setting / fall".
253  Beelzebub — Beelzebub ruled that section of Hell called Septentrio, and ranked second only to Satan.
[BL]: The parts of Hell with their rulers mentioned in chapter 34 are for some reason inconsistently translated. "Septentrio" is "North", and presumably "the Occident" is simply the West (with no especial association with falling down). What happened to the southern part of Hell?
253  Belial — This devil was "in form of a bear, with curled black hair to the ground, his ears standing upright; within his ears were as red as blood, out of which issued flames of fire."
253  Ascheroth — Ascheroth was "in the form of a worm, going upright on his tail, and had no feet, but a tail like a slow-worm: under his chops grew two short hands," and he had "many bristles on his back like a hedgehog." He ruled that part of Hell called the Occident.
253  Phlegeton — Phlegeton means "the flaming" and, in classic myth, was a river of fire in the underworld. The History of Dr. Faustus makes him one of the infernal kings, who rules "in the midst of them all."
[BL]: "Phlegeton" is more properly "Phlegethon" ("the burning one"). Note it's really "burning" rather than "flaming".
254  Cannagosta — This demon is described as having "a head like the head of an ass, and a tail like a cat, and claws like an ox."
254  Chorasma — ?
256  Breschau — The capital city of Noumaria appears again in Gallantry.
[BL]: Neil Gaiman happily produces a person called Breschau, who has an attitude to being punished in his after-life which is very similar to that of Coth of the Rocks. Thus Book IV ("Season of Mists") of "Sandman".
257  Set — Set was a deity once worshiped by the Egyptians. He was represented as an ass-headed man holding in his hand the crux ansata, and was regarded as the personification of an evil principle.
257  Bast — Bast was a name for Bubastes, a goddess of lower Egypt. Her symbol was the cat.
[BL]: I don't understand the claim that "Bast was a name for Bubastes". As though "Bubastes" were the real thing, and "Bast" merely a name, or something. It is more precisely "Pasht", but nobody would recognize that. She was the goddess of war. The Egyptians were clearly sound on the cat question.
[DR]: Bast (AKA Bastet, Ailuros) is an important ancient Egyptian Goddess and protector of cats, women and children. She is Goddess of sunrise. Her goddess duty changed over the years, but she is also known as a goddess of love, fertility, birth, music and dance. She has been dated to at least the Second Dynasty (c. 2890-2686 BC). She is most commonly depicted with the body of young woman and the head of a domestic cat, sometimes holding a sistrum (an ancient Egyptian rattle, a percussion instrument consisting of a thin metal frame with rods or loops attached that jingle when shaken). Her cult center was in Bubastis.
261  Porutsa — Coth's adventures in Porutsa are related in Book Four of The Silver Stallion. Therein, Porutsa is a city of the Toltecs, the ancient people who ruled in Mexico before the Aztecs came.
268  Vampire — A vampire, says an old document, is a "dead person who continues to live on in the grave; who at night ascends from his tomb as an apparition in order to suck the blood of the living by which he maintains his body in the earth unemaciated and incapable of decay." A vampire could be destroyed only by driving a stake through the heart of the corpse and then burning the body.
268  Kalki — Kalki is the white horse that the Hindu god Vishnu will ride in his tenth and last incarnation, when he comes to destroy the world. It is Mr. Cabell's pleasure to confuse Kalki with the silver stallion of Poictesme; and he has named the uniform edition of his works, which bear a stallion rampant, enclosed in a circle, in the lower right-hand corner of the front cover, the Kalki Edition.
269  Florimel — ?
[BL]: Florimel is a character in The Faerie Queene – or rather, she is roughly two of them, one of which is a deceitful imitation, the work of Archimago.
274  "Temon!" and "Arigizator!" — These words were fertility charms.
[DC]: These words come from a passage cited in John Davenport's Aphrodisiacs and Anti-Aphrodisiacs. They are given as counters to anti-fertility charms:
It must not be supposed that no counter-charms or amulets existed. The curate Thiers, who has written at large upon this subject, enumerates twenty-two different ones, the most potent of which were the following:
[. . .]
- To write upon virgin parchment, before sunrise, and for nine days successively, the word Arigazartor.
- To pronounce the word Temon three times successively at sunrise, provided the day promises to be fine.
274  Dudaïm — Dudaïm is a variety of melon, having a small, fragrant, but inedible fruit. It and eruca were supposed to be aphrodisiacs.
[DC]: This is a Hebrew term for the mandrake. Cabell again derives the term from John Davenport:
According to Calmet, the word Dudaïm may be properly deduced from Dudim (pleasure of love); and the translators of the Septuagint and the Vulgate render it by words equivalent to the English one — mandrake. The word Dudaïm is rendered in our authorized version by the word mandrake — a translation sanctioned by the Septuagint, which, in this place, translates Dudaïm by [mếla mandragorôn] mandrake–apples, and in Solomon's Song by [hoi mandragòrai] (mandrakes). With this, Onkelos and the Syrian version agree; and this concurrence of authorities, with the fact that the mandrake (atropa mandragora) combines in itself all the circumstances and traditions required for the Dudaïm, has given to the current interpretation its present prevalence.
Modern writers, as might be expected, have taken a very wide range in their inquiries as to what kind of plant the Dudaïm really was, some regarding it as lilies, roses, violets, snowdrops and jasmine; others as melons, plaintain fruits, whirtleberries, dwarf brambles, the berries of the physalis or winter cherry, grapes of some peculiar kind, or even underground fungi, as truffles, etc. Many have supposed the word to mean the ingredients, whatever they might have been, of a charm or love-potion, and hence have recurred to the mandrake, celebrated, as already said, throughout antiquity, for its supposed virtues, and whose history has been tricked out with all the traditional nonsense that might be imagined to confirm that report of such qualities.
274  Eruca — Eruca is a plant of the mustard family. It was once supposed to possess mystic properties.
[DC]: Yet another borrowing from Davenport:
The plant Rocket (brasica eruca) has likewise been especially celebrated by the ancient poets for possessing the virtue of restoring vigour to the sexual organs, on which account it was consecrated to and sown around the statue of Priapus [. . .]
Davenport also quotes the Roman poet Columella:
Th'eruca, Priapus, near thee we sow
To rouse to duty husbands who are slow.
274  Epigenes of Rhodes — This was a Greek comic poet, whose works have perished. He was the author of The Bacchic Women.
277  Asmodeus — This was the demon of vanity and dress, called, in the Talmud, the king of the devils.
277  "The religion of Hell" — The government of Hell, as described in the rest of this chapter, bears a striking likeness to the wartime government of the United States, under Woodrow Wilson.
277  Pandemonium — Pandemonium (see picture — DR) was Milton's name for the parliament of Hell.
[BL]: Strictly, "Pandaemonium" is Milton's name for the parliament-house of Hell, not the institution or business of Parliament.
279  Livonius — ?
[TC]: Lin Carter's Terra Magica appendices suggest that Livonius, Rudigernus, and Zantipher Magnus are fictional.
281  Rudigernus — ?
281  Zantipher Magnus — ?
282  Phyllis — ?
283  Sultan of Garçoa — ?
285  Count Osmund — ?
285  Sir Ganelon — ?
[TC] The Knight who, according to legend, betrayed Charlemagne's forces to the Muslims at the Battle of Ronceveaux Pass. In The Song of Roland, he is Roland's stepfather. In Canto XXXII of the Book of Inferno in Dante's The Divine Comedya, he (Ganellone) has been banished to Cocytus in the depths of hell as punishment for his betrayal.
285  Wulfnoth — ?
289  Meridie — In The History of Dr. Faustus, Meridie is one of the five divisions of Hell and is ruled over by Belial.
289  Tartarus — Tartarus was the classic place of punishment. It was as far below Hades as Heaven was above the earth.
289  Jemra — ?
289  The Bottomless Pit — In the ninth chapter of the Revelations, the bottomless pit is opened and a swarm of locusts loosed upon the earth to torment the unrighteous.
289  Narakas — This is the Hell of the Hindus.
289  Brachus — This is another devil mentioned in The History of Dr. Faustus.
There is no data for this chapter.
There is no data for this chapter.
312  Mahound — Mahound is a Christian term of contempt for Mohammed, whose teachings prohibit the consumption of alcohol.
313  Cappadocia — Cappadocia was a district in Asia Minor, to which different boundaries were assigned at different times, and which became a Roman province in 17 A.D. Cappadocia is one of the regions to which Peter's Epistles were addressed.
316  Res Dea — Res Dea is still another anagram for Sereda, the letters being transposed in the order 3-2-1 5-4-6.
[APW]: The variant spellings of Sereda seem to move about in accord with the terminal repetition scheme in a sestina.
329  Ardnari — Ardnari is the name given to the great Hindu god Brahma when he is represented in an androgynous (male and female) form; his right half having the form and sex of a man, his left that of a woman.
329  Ptha — Ptha was the chief god of lower Egypt, and the creator of the universe. He was generally represented as a deformed or new-born child, with a flat head, projecting forehead, thick lips, prominent abdomen, and distorted legs. He wore on his head a scarab, held against his chest two serpents, and stood upon two crocodiles.
[BL]: "Ptha" is a hellenisation of "Ptah". Unlike Bast, this is now familiar in a less mangled version.
329  Jaldalaoth — According to certain Gnostic teachings, Jaldalaoth was chief of the seven angels or demiurges who, at the behest of a superior god, created the universe. It was he who was worshiped by the Jews under the name of Jahveh, or Jehovah.
329  Abraxas — This was a Persian name for the supreme deity. Flaubert, in The Temptation of St. Anthony, makes Basilidês say, "The Supreme Being with all the infinite emanations is called Abraxas."
 [DR]: ...point observed somewhere or other, it is not good for man to live alone — A reference to Genesis 2:18:
And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.
335  Glastonbury — Glastonbury was the hermitage to which Lancelot retired after Arthur was dead and Guenevere had become a nun.
338  Caerleon — This was the usual residence of King Arthur.
338  Northgalis — This was a name for North Wales.
338  Joyeuse Garde — Joyeuse Garde was Lancelot's English castle.
340  Thaïs — Thaïs was an Athenian courtesan who induced Alexander to set fire to the palace of the Persian king at Persepolis.
[BL]: As far as I know, there is no early support for the tale that Alexander fired Persepolis at the whim of Thaïs.
340  Sappho — Sappho, who lived at Lesbos in the seventh century B.C., is generally considered the greatest of woman poets. It is thought that she was homosexual and led a very licentious life.
340  Rhodopê — Rhodopê was a celebrated Greek courtesan of Thracian origin, and a fellow slave of Æsop. She was loved by Sappho's brother, and was the victim of a poem by Sappho.
341  Babylon — Perhaps Anaïtis refers here to the sacred prostitution practiced in this city. Frazer (in The Golden Bough; see excerpt — DR) says, "in Babylon every woman, whether rich or poor, had once in her life to submit to the embraces of a stranger at the temple of Mylitta, and to dedicate to the goddess the wages earned by this sanctified harlotry."
341  Armenia — Here was the shrine of Anaïtis herself, where she appeared under her own name, and not that of some other love goddess.
342  Paphos — Paphos was the chief seat of the worship of Aphrodite, who was said to have landed at this place after her birth among the waves. The image of the goddess was a conical stone, which was anointed with oil at the time of worship.
342  Amathus — Amathus, a town in Cypress, had a celebrated temple of Aphrodite. The Cyprian Aphrodite was two-sexed, and represented by the image of a bearded woman.
342  Alexandria — In this city there was such a temple to Cotytto as is here described.
There is no data for this chapter.
There is no data for this chapter.
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[DR]: Note: Where Amazon links have been provided below, the link is only to a single edition. Multiple editions are available for some volumes. If you want to be thorough, search Amazon for all editions.
|Age of Fable||Thomas Bulfinch|
|[DC]: Aphrodisiacs and Anti-Aphrodisiacs||John Davenport|
|Archaic Dictionary||W. R. Cooper|
|Bibliography of James Branch Cabell||Guy Holt|
|The Book of Days|
|Curious Myths of the Middle Ages||S. Baring-Gould|
|Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (see also Wikipedia; also available online)||Smith|
|Dictionary of Medieval Romance||Spence|
|Dictionary of Non-Classical Mythology||Marian Edwardes and|
|Dictionary of Phrase and Fable||Brewer|
|Dictionary or Religion and Ethics||Mathews and Smith|
|Encyclopædia Britannica (see also Wikipedia; also now in public domain and available online through Wikisource)||Eleventh edition|
|Encyclopedia of Religion||Canney|
|Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics|
|The Faerie Queene (see also Wikipedia; also available online)||Edmund Spenser|
|The Golden Bough (see also Wikipedia and excerpt )||
Sir James George Frazer|
History of Twelve Caesars
|Irish Fairy and Folk Tales; also available online)||W. B. Yeats|
|Le Morte d'Arthur (see also Wikipedia; also available online)||Sir Thomas Malory|
|Lives of Eminent Grammarians||Suetonius|
|The Mabinogion (see also Wikipedia; also available online)||Lady Guest|
|The Mythology of Greece and Rome||Arthur Fairbanks|
|Reader's Hand Book||Brewer|
|The Rosicrutians||Hargrave Jennings|
|Russian Folk-Tales||Leonard A. Magnus|
|Russian Folk Tales||W. R. S. Ralston|
|The Temptation of St. Anthony||Gustave Flaubert|
|Webster's Unabridged Dictionary|
[DR]: Obviously the Bible should be on this list!
Reference to folios for the Kalki and Illustrated American editions are in Roman figures; to the English edition, in Italic figures enclosed in brackets.
([DR]: As you see, the bulk of this data has been skipped. Does anybody think it really needs to be included? Let me know.)A ab hur hus, 61 
The Storisende Edition. First published 15th March, 1928.A ab hur hus, 56