Active Mixer References
Updated 5 December 2002
    
    
  1. -----, "Active Mixer Design Using the NE25139 Dual Gate MESFET," California Eastern Labs (NEC) Application Note AN1020, 1997.
    
    
  2. Adiseno, M.I. and H. Olsson, "A Wideband Active-Feedback Low-Noise Converter for Multiband High-Lineaarity Low-IF Wireless Receivers," 2001 IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, pp. 131-134.
    
    
  3. Andrys, P.R. and P.H. Thompson, "Double Balance Differential Active Ring Mixer with Current Shared Active Input Balun," US Patent #6,057,714, 2 May 2000.
    
    
  4. Bautista, E.E., B. Bastani, and J. Heck, "A High IIP2 Downconversion Mixer Using Dynamic Matching," IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 35, No. 12, Dec 2000, pp. 1934-1941.
    
    
  5. Behbahani, F., A. Fotowat, S. Navid, R. Gaethke, and M. Delurio, "A Low Distortion Bipolar Mixer for Low Voltage Direct Up-Conversion and High IF Systems," IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 32, No. 9, Sep 1997, pp. 1446-1450.
    
    
  6. Braathen, R.E., "Active Filtering Mixer," US Patent 5,161,254, 3 Nov 1992.
    
    
  7. Cerny, F.J., G.D. Helm, and R.G. Wesoloski, "Balanced Active Mixer Circuit," European Patent Application EP0006760, 29 Jun 1979.
    
    
  8. Chadwick, P.E., "The SL6440 High Performance Integrated Ciruit Mixer," WESCON 1981 Convention Record, Section 24/2, pp. 1-9.
    
    
  9. Coffing, D. and E. Main, "Effects of Offsets on Bipolar Integrated Circuit Mixer Even Order Distortion Terms," IEEE 2000 International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2000).
  10. Cox, Ian F., "R.F. Mixer," US Patent 5,438,693, 1 Aug 1995
    
    
  11. Crols, J. and M.S.J. Steyaert, "A 1.5 GHz Highly Linear CMOS Downconversion Mixer," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 30, No. 7, Jul 1995, pp. 736-742.
    
    
  12. de la Fuenta, M.L., J.P. Pascual, and E. Artal, "Analyze and Design a Cascode MESFET Mixer," Microwaves & RF, May 1998, pp. 129-138.
    
    
  13. Deiss, A., D. Pfaff, and Q. Huang, "A 200-MHz Sub-mA RF Front End for Wireless Hearing Aid Applications," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits," Vol. 35, No. 7, Jul 2000, pp. 977-986.
    
    
  14. Dudding, C.H., "High Power Level Mixer Apparatus," US Patent #4,408,352, 4 Oct 1983.
    
    
  15. Durec, J.C. and W.E. Main, "Circuit and Method of Controlling Mixer Linearity," US Patent #5,886,547, 23 Mar 1999.
    
    
  16. Epsom, R.L., "Intermodulation Cancelling Mixer," US Patent #4,383,334, 10 May 1983.
    
    
  17. Fayyaz, N., "Low Voltage Mixer," US Patent 6,335,651, 1 Jan 2002.
    
    
  18. Fong, K.L. and R.G. Meyer, "Monolithic RF Active Mixer Design," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 46, No. 3, March 1999, pp. 231-239.
    
    
  19. Finol, J.L., M.J., McGowan, and P. Gorisse, "Multiplier and method for Mixing Signals," US Patent #5,920,810, 6 Jul 1999.
    
    
  20. Fong, K.L. and R.G. Meyer, "High-Frequency Nonlinearity Analysis of Common-Emitter and Differential-Pair Transconductance Stages," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 4, April 1998, pp. 548-555.
    
    
  21. Fong, K.L. and R.G. Meyer, "Monolithic RF Active Mixer Design," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II, Vol. 46, No. 3, Mar 1999, pp. 231-239.
    
    
  22. Fong, K.L., C.D. Hull, and R.G. Meyer, "A Class AB Monolithic Mixer for 900-MHz Applications," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 32, No. 8, August 1997, pp. 1166-1172.
    
    
  23. Fox, T.R., "Variable-Tansconductance Four-Quadrant Gilbert-Type Modulator with Feedback Circuitry in Improved NMR Transmission," US Patent #4,766,400, 23 Aug 1988.
    
    
  24. Gay, M.J., "Phase Detector for Television Tuning Systems and the Like," European Patent Application 0 040 271 A1, 25 Nov 1981.
    
    
  25. Gharpurey, R. and T.R. Viswanathan, "Design of Front-End RF Circuits," 1999 Southwest Symposium on Mixed-Signal Design, pp. 134-139.
    
    
  26. Gilbert, Barrie, "Double Balanced RF Mixer with Predetermined Input Impedance," US Patent #5,826,182, 20 Oct 1998.
    
    
  27. Gilbert, Barrie, "Four-Quadrant Multiplier Circuit," US Patent #3,689,752, 5 Sep 1972.
    
    
  28. Gilbert, Barrie, "Fundamentals of Active Mixers," Applied Microwave & Wireless, Winter 1995, pp. 10-27.
    
    
  29. Gilbert, Barrie, "RF Mixer with Inductive Degeneration," US Patent #6,122,497, 19 Sep 2000.
    
    
  30. Gilbert, Barrie, "The MICROMIXER: A Highly Linear Variant of the Gilbert Mixer Using a Bisymmetric Class-AB Input Stage," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 32, No. 9, Sep 1997, pp. 1412-1423.
     
    
  31. Gilbert, Barrie, "Variable Gain Mixer Having Improved Linearity and Switching Noise," US Patent #5,589,791, 31 Dec 1996.
    
    
  32. Grandfield, W.J., "Stacked Double Balanced Mixer Circuit," US Patent #5,448,772, 5 Sep 1995.
    
    
  33. Groe, J.B., "Active Radio Frequency Mixer Circuit with Feedback," International Patent WO 00/40039, 6 Jul 2000.
    
    
  34. Groe, J.B., "Active Radio Frequency Mixer Circuit with Feedback," US Patent 6,205,325, 20 Mar 2001
    
    
  35. Hackl, S., T.F. Meister, M. Wurzer, H. Knapp, K. Aufinger, L. Treitinger, and A.L. Scholtz, "Low-Noise, Low-Power Monolithically Integrated Active 20GHz Mixer in SiGe Technology," Electronics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 1, 4 Jan 2001, pp. 36-37.
    
    
  36. Hawker, P., "G3SBI's High Performance Mixer," Radio Communication, Oct 1993, pp. 55-56.
    
    
  37. Hawker, P., "New Low IMD Mixer," Radio Communication, Oct 2000, pp. 63-64.
    
    
  38. Hawker, P., "Super-Linear HF Receiver Front Ends," Radio Communication, Sep 1993, pp. 54-56.
    
    
  39. Heck, J.P., "Balanced Mixer Circuit with Improved Linearity,: US Patent #5,548,840, 20 Aug 1996.
    
    
  40. Heinz, R. and H. Sapotta, "HF Mixer Stage Having a Common Base Circuit," US Patent #5,410,744, 25 Apr 1995.
    
    
  41. Hejhall, R., "MC1596 Balanced Modulator," Motorola Application Note AN-531.
    
    
  42. Hong, B.S., L.F. Linder, E.M. Hirata, and D.C. Devendorf, "Mixer Structures with Enhanced Gain and Reduced Spurious Signals," US Patent #5,859,559, 12 Jan 1999.
    
    
  43. Hu, Y. and K. Mayaram, "Behavioral Models for Noise in Bipolar and MOSFET Mixers," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Part II, Vol. 46, No. 10, Oct 1999, pp. 1289-1300.
    
    
  44. Hubbard, B., "High Performance Active Double Balanced Mixer," RF Design, Jan 1992, pp. 63-66.
    
    
  45. Jaffer, A., "High Dynamic Range Mixer," US Patent #4,727,596, 23 Feb 1988.
    
    
  46. Jones, H.E. "Dual Output Synchronous Detector Utilizing Transistorized Differential Amplifiers," US Patent #3,241,078, 15 Mar 1966.
    
    
  47. Kamase, F., "Double |Balanced Mixer Circuit with Less Power Consumption," US Patent #5,805,987, 8 Sep 1998.
    
    
  48. Kan, T.K-K., K-C. Mak, D. Ma, and H.C. Luong, "A 2-V 900-MHz CMOS Mixer for GSM Receivers," IEEE 2000 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2000), Geneva, Switzerland, May 2000, pp. 327-330.
    
    
  49. Kanazawa, K., M. Kazumura, S. Nambu, G. Kano, and I. Teramoto, "A GaAs Double-Balanced Dual-Gate FET Mixer IC for UHF Receiver Front-End Applications," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-33, No. 12, Dec 1985, pp. 1548-1554.
    
    
  50. Khannur, P.B. and K.S. Ling, "A 2.45GHz Fully-Differential CMOS Image-Reject Mixer for Bluetooth Application," IEEE 2002 International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2002), pp. 549-552.
    
    
  51. Khoury, G. and R.D. Beards, "Linear Low-Noise Mixer," US Patent #5,532,637, 2 Jul 1996.
    
    
  52. Kim, M.G., J.K. Mun, J.W. Lim, C.H. Kim, C.S. Lee, and J. Lee, "A 3V GaAs MESFET Monolithic Transmitter with Cross-Coupled Common-Source, Common-Gate Pair Linear Mixer for Cellular Hand-Held Phones," 1999 IEEE IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, pp. 207-210.
    
    
  53. Kim, J. and Y. Kwon, "Intermodulation Analysis of Dual-Gate FET Mixers," IEEE Transactions on Microwavfe Theory and Techniques, Vol. 50, No. 6, Jun 2002, pp. 1544-1554.
    
    
  54. Kim, Y., Y. Kim, and S. Lee, "Linearized Mixer Using Predistortion Technique," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, VOl. 12, No. 6, Jun 2002, pp. 204-205.
    
    
  55. Kimura, K., "Some Circuit Design Techniques Using Two Cross-Coupled, Emitter-Coupled Pairs," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Part I, Vol. 41, No. 5, May 1994, pp. 411-423.
    
    
  56. Kivedas, K., A. Parssinen, and K.A.I. Halonen, "Characterization of IIP2 and DC-Offsets in Transconductance Mixers," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II, Vol. 48, No. 11, Nov 2001, pp. 1028-1038.
     
    
  57. Kobayashi, Kevin W., "High Linearity Active Balance(d) Mixer," US Patent #6,078,802, 20 Jun 2000.
    
    
  58. Laws, P.G., "Mixer for Direct Conversion Receiver," British Patent 2,249,679, 13 May 1992.
    
    
  59. Laws, P.G., "Mixer for Direct Conversion Receiver," US Patent 5,303,417, 12 Apr 1994.
    
    
  60. Lehne, M., J.T. Stonick, and U. Moon, "An Adaptive Offset Cancellation Mixer for Direct Conversion Receivers in 2.4GHz CMOS," IEEE 2000 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2000), Geneva, Switzerland, May 2000, pp. 319-321.
    
    
  61. Li, F.X. and G. Corsetto, "Multi-Order Cancellation Technology," Microwave Journal, Oct 1997, pp. 84-91.
    
    
  62. Li, L. and H. Tenhunen, "Noise Analysis of Monolithic RF Balanced Down Conversion Mixers," 2001 Southwest Symposium on Mixed Signal Design, pp. 70-75.
    
    
  63. Long, J.R., "RF Amplifier, RF Mixer, and RF Receiver," US Patent #6,026,286, 15 Feb 2000.
    
    
  64. Maas, S.A., "A GaAs MESFET Mixer with Very Low Intermodulation," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-35, No. 4, Apr 1987, pp. 425-429.
    
    
  65. McGeehan, J.P., M.A. Beach, P.B. Kenington, and A.R. Nix, "Image-Reject Mixers," UK Patent Application GB2,296,613A, 3 Jul 1996.
    
    
  66. Meyer, R.G., "Integrated Circuit Mixers," NEREM Record, 1970, pp. 62-63.
    
    
  67. Meyer, Robert G., "Intermodulation in High-Frequency Bipolar Transistor Integrated-Circuit Mixers," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-21, No. 4, August 1986, pp. 534-537.
    
    
  68. Meyer, R.G., "Noise in Transistor Mixers at High Frequencies," Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 115, No. 4, April 1968, pp. 487-495.
    
    
  69. Meyer, R.G., "Signal Processes in Transistor Mixer Circuits at High Frequencies," Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 114, No. 11, Nov 1967, pp. 1605-1612.
    
    
  70. Mittel, J.G., "Double Balanced Mixer Circuit with Active Filter Load for a Portable Communication Receiver," US Patent #5,630,228, 13 May 1997.
    
    
  71. Miyamoto, H. and M. Shinagawa, "Self-Excited Mixer Circuit Using Field Effect Transistor," US Patent #4,112,373, 5 Sep 1978.
    
    
  72. Moniz, J.M. and B. Maoz, "Improving the Dynamic Range of Si MMIC Gelbert Cell Mixers for Homodyne Receivers," IEEE 1994 Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Circuits Symposium, pp. 103-106.
    
    
  73. Muterspaugh, M.W., "Transistor Mixer," US Patent 4,850,039, 18 Jul 1989.
    
    
  74. Myer, R.E., M. Patel, and J.C-C. Wen, "Apparatus and Method for Extending the Dynamic Range of a Mixer Using Feed Forward Distortion Reduction," US Patent 6,363,120, 26 Mar 2002.
    
    
  75. Nakayama, M., K. Horiguchi, K. Yamamoto, Y. Yoshii, S. Sugiyama, N. Suematsu, and T. Takagi, "A 1.9GHz Single-Chip RF Front-End GaAs MMIC with Low-Distortion Cascode FET Mixer," IEICE Transactions, Vol. E82-C, No. 5, May 1999, pp. 717-724.
    
    
  76. Nason, C.H.W., "Push-Pull Arrangemetns of Unusual Character," Radio Engineering, Aug 1931, p. 23.
    
    
  77. Nauta, H.C. and E.H. Nordholt, "The Intermodulation-Free Dynamic Range of Bipolar Switching Mixers," Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Radio Receivers and Associated Systems, IERE Publication No. 68, 1986, pp. 141-145.
    
    
  78. Navid, N.S., A. Fotowat-Ahmady, and F. Behbahani, "Low Voltage Temperature and Vcc Compensated RF Mixer," US Patent #6,138,000.
    
    
  79. Nesimoglu, T., M.A. Beach, P.A. Warr, and J.R. MacLeod, "Linearised Mixer Using Frequency Retranslation," Electronics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 25, 6 Dec 2001, pp. 1493-1494.
    
    
  80. Neuf, D., "Extended Dynamic Range Mixers," Applied Microwaves and Wireless, Winter 1996, pp. 24-39.
    
    
  81. Nguyen, N.M., "Low Noise Active Mixer," US Patent #5,379,457, 3 Jan 1995.
    
    
  82. Ock, S., Y. Yang, and B. Kim, "New Linearization Method for Mixer," Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 39, No. 1, Jul 2001, pp. 1-3.
    
    
  83. Ohnishi, H. and S. Yamashita, "Microwave FET Mixer Arranged to Receive RF Input at Gate Electrode," US Patent #4,592,095, 27 May 1986.
    
    
  84. Okamoto, M. and A. van der Ziel, "Noise Figure of FET Mixers with HF Feedback from Output to Input," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Sep 1968, pp. 300-302.
    
    
  85. Oxner, E., "High Dynamic Range Mixing with the Si8901," Ham Radio, Mar 1988, pp. 10-14.
    
    
  86. Puckette, C.M., "Linear Mixer with Reduced Spurious Responses," US Patent 4,352,210, 28 Sep 1982.
    
    
  87. Quartly, J.R. and N.J. Baars, "Image Rejection Mixer Circuit," British Patent 2,148,064, 22 May 1985.
    
    
  88. Rafuse, R.P., "Symmetric MOSFET Mixers of High Dynamic Range," 1968 International Solid-State Circuits Conference, pp. 122-123.
    
    
  89. Reiter, Von Leopold and H. Lindenmeier, "Dynamik und Linearitat von Hochfrequenzgegentaktmischstufen (Dynamic and Intermodulation Effects of High Frequency Balanced Mixers)," Frequenz, Vol. 36, No. 11, Nov 1982, pp. 290-294.
    
    
  90. Reiter, Von Leopold and H. Lindenmeier, "Rauscheigenschaften und Empfindlichkeit von Hochfrequenzgegentaktmischstufen (Noise and Sensitivity of High Frequency Balanced Mixers)," Frequenz, Vol. 36, No. 10, Oct 1982, pp. 267-271.
    
    
  91. Rohde, U.L., "Performance Capability of Active Mixers," WESCON 1981 Convention Record, Section 24/1, pp. 1-17.
    
    
  92. Rohde, U.L., "Performance Capability of Active Mixers," Ham Radio, Mar 1982, pp. 30-35 and Apr 1982, pp. 38-44.
    
    
  93. Rinderle, H. and H. Sapotta, "Additive HF Mixer," US Patent #5,732,344, 24 Mar 1998.
    
    
  94. Rinderle, H. and H. Sapotta, "HF Mixer Stage Having a Common Base Circuit," US Patent #5,410,744, 25 Apr 1995.
    
    
  95. Sakashita, S., T. Sato, H. Nagai, K. Kubo, and A. Usui, "Frequency Conversion Apparatus," US Patent #4,677,692, 20 Jan 1987.
    
    
  96. Severance, B., "Performing Sensitive Two-Tone Mixer Measurements with Existing Equipment," Applied Microwave & Wireless, Mar 2000, pp. 42-46.
    
    
  97. Schuster, N.A., "A Phase-Sensitive Detector Circuit Having High Balance Stability," The Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 22, No. 4, Apr 1951, pp. 254-255.
    
    
  98. Shana'a, O., I. Linscott, and L. Tyler, "Frequency-Scalable SiGe Bipolar RFIC Front-End Design," IEEE 2000 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, pp. 183-186.
    
    
  99. Sharma, R. and B.M. Sosin, "Mixer," US Patent #4,977,617, 11 Dec 1990.
    
    
  100. Sokolov, V. and J.B. Beyer, "Broadband Mixer/Amplifier," European Patent EP0196098, 1 Oct 1986.
    
    
  101. Spaulding, W.M., "A High-Level Active Mixer," Hewlett-Packard Journal, Aug 1985, pp. 25-29.
    
    
  102. Strutt, M.J.O., "Noise-Figure Reduction in Mixer Stages," Proceedings of the IRE, Dec 1941, pp. 942-950.
    
    
  103. Sugawara, H., "High Frequency Multiplier," US Patent #5,495,194, 27 Feb 1996.
    
    
  104. Sullivan, P.J., W.H. Ku, and B.A. Xavier, "Active Doubly Balanced Mixers for CMOS RFICs," Microwave Journal, Oct 1997, pp.22-38.
    
    
  105. Sullivan, P.J., B.A. Xavier, and W.H. Ku, "A Common Source Input Cross Coupled Quad CMOS Mixer," Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, Vol. 19, 1999, pp. 181-188
    
    
  106. Sullivan, P.J., B.A. Xavier, and W.H. Ku, "Doubly Balanced Dual-Gate CMOS Mixer," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 34, No. 6, Jun 1999, pp. 878-881.
    
    
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  114. Terrovitis, M.T. and R.G. Meyer, "Noise in Current-Commutating CMOS Mixers," IEEE Journal of Soild-State Circuits, Vol. 34, No. 6, Jun 1999, pp. 772-783.
    
    
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  118. Trask, C., "A New Low-IMD Mixer," Electronics World, Sep 2000, pp. 680-685.
    
    
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  120. Trask, C., "Feedback Technique Improves Active Mixer Performance," RF Design, Sep 1997, pp. 46-52.
    
    
  121. Trask, C., "High Dynamic Range Double-Balanced Active Mixers Using Lossless Feedback," IEEE 2000 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2000), Geneva, Switzerland, May 2000, Vol. 3, pp. 41-44.
    
    
  122. Trask, C., "Lossless Feedback Double-Balanced Active Mixers," US Patent 6,393,267, 21 May 2002.
    
    
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  130. Waugh, R.M. and M. Kumar, "Monolithic Double Balanced Mixer with High Third Order Intercept Point Employing an Active Distributed Balun," US Patent #5,060,298, 22 Oct 1991.
    
    
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  133. Wholey, J., I. Kipnis, and C. Snapp, "Silicon Bipolar Double Balanced Active Mixer MMIC's for RF and Microwave Applications up to 6GHz," 1989 Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Circuits Symposium, pp. 133-137.
    
    
  134. Wong, A.K., S.H. Lee, and M.G. Wong, "Current Combiner Enhanced Active Mixer Performance," Microwaves & RF, Mar 1994, pp. 156-165.
    
    
  135. Wyse, R.D., "Active Commutated Double Balanced Mixer," US Patent 6,230,001, 8 May 2001.
    
    
  136. Young, J.P., "Dual Gate FET Mixing Apparatus with Feedback Means," US Patent #4,814,649, 21 Mar 1989.
    
    
  137. Yuen, G.W.M., "Transformer-Coupled Mixer Circuit," US Patent #5,821,802, 13 Oct 1998.
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