WORKING MEMORY...SOME DEFINITIONS                            

Cognition is the mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, recognizing, understanding
and judgment.


Crystallized
intelligence, on the other hand, is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. It does not equate to memory or knowledge, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory. Crystallized intelligence is one’s lifetime or intellectual achievement, as demonstrated largely through one's vocabulary and general knowledge.

Fluid
intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of             acquired knowledge.  It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships and drawing a conclusion by             making a logical judgment .  It is necessary for all logical problem solving, e.g., in scientific, mathematical and technical problem solving.

Executive Function is the management system of the brain. Executive Functions (EF) activate, organize, integrate and manage other functions They enable individuals to account for short and long term consequences of their actions and to plan for those results. It also
allows individuals to make real time evaluations of their actions, and make necessary adjustments if those actions are not achieving the
 desired result.

Neuroplasticity is a  term used by neuroscientists, referring to the brain's ability to change at any age, for better or worse. This
flexibility plays an incredibly important role in our brain development as well as  shaping our personalities.

Brain plasticity is a physical process. Gray matter can actually shrink or thicken; neural connections can be forged and refined or 
weakened and severed. Changes in the physical brain manifest as changes in our abilities. For example, each time we learn a new              dance step, it reflects a change in our physical brains: new "wires" (neural pathways) that give instructions to our bodies on how to           perform  the step. Each time we forget someone's name, it also reflects brain change— "wires"that once connected to the memory have          been degraded, or even severed. As these examples show, changes in the brain can result in improved skills (a new dance step) or a             weakening of skills (a forgotten name.)

People commonly think of childhood and young adulthood as a time of brain growth—the young person constantly learns new things, embarks on new adventures, shows an inquisitive and explorative spirit. Conversely, older adulthood is often seen as a time of             cognitive decline, with people becoming more forgetful, less inclined to seek new experiences, more "set in their ways". Although              certain brain machinery tends to decline with age, there are steps people can take to tap into plasticity and reinvigorate that machinery.         We just have to keep our brains fit with a series of targeted brain plasticity exercises. 

Working memory is the temporary retention of information that was just experienced but no longer exists in the external environment . Working memory is what enables us to keep several pieces of information active while we try to do something with them. Working        memory is "the building block of all cognition.    It is the bandwidth to maintain a few task-relevant items of information (such as         concepts, rules or images) in the face of distracting irrelevant information. Since working memory makes information available for               more advanced cognitive processing, working memory capacity – the number of distinct ‘chunks’ of information you can hold in mind             at the same time – is one of the main rate-limiting factors in fluid intelligence, planning, complex decision making, comprehension,                 and creative problem solving.  The larger your working memory capacity or ‘mental workspace’, the greater your capacity for higher             order cognition and therefore,  academic and professional achievement.

Working memory capacity is the bandwidth to maintain a few task-relevant items of information (such as concepts, rules or images)             in the face of distracting irrelevant information. Since working memory makes information available for more advanced cognitive     processing, working memory capacity – the number of distinct ‘chunks’ of information you can hold in mind at the same time – is one              of themain rate-limiting factors for higher-order cognitive functions such as fluid intelligence, planning, complex decision making, comprehension, and creative problem solving.

In general terms, the larger the working memory capacity or ‘mental workspace’, the greater the capacity for higher order cognition                 and thus academic and professional achievement.
         
                          
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The Stigma of Outside Help

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Isn't Therapy for Crazy People?

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Different Types of Psychotherapy

Working Memory Definitions

Cogmed Working Memory Training  


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