VARIOUS TREATMENT MODALITIES
is a brief outline of theories developed over the last century.
Hopefully, your therapist is trained in a variety of
can select what will most suit you.
systems to monitor internal processes such as heart rate, brain
waves, or perspiration to help an
individual become aware of their
physiological responses and learn to have more control over them.
based on the belief that faulty thinking patterns and belief systems
cause psychological problems
and that changing our thoughts improves
our mental and emotional health and results in changes in behavior.
therapy is designed to help you identify and change
distorted thought (cognitive) patterns that can lead to feelings
behaviors that are troublesome, self-defeating or
It's based on the premise that how you interpret your
life determines the way you feel and behave. Like
cognitive therapy focuses on your
current problem, rather than addressing underlying or
past issues or conflicts.
therapy, however, your
experiences are an important part of the
cognitive therapy process. Often cognitive therapy
will work in
with behavioral therapy and you may see
the term "Cognitive-Behavioral".
therapy combines features of both cognitive and behavioral therapies.
Negative beliefs and
behaviors are replaced with healthy
positive ones. The treatment is based on the premise that
rather than external situations determine their
therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock,
treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in
anesthetized patients for therapeutic effect. Today, ECT is
most often used as a
treatment for major depression which has
not responded to
other treatment, and is also used in the treatment of mania
disorders. First introduced in the
1930s , it gained widespread use
as a form of treatment in the 1940s and 50s. Today, an
worldwide receive ECT every year, usually in a
course of 6-12 treatments administered 2 or 3 times a week.
Movement Desensitization Reprocessing)
restructuring thought patterns and associations related to traumatic
events and memories and other
sources of emotional distress.
Francine Shapiro developed EMDR when she discovered that rapid-eye
combined with focusing on
disturbing thoughts and memories
produced a "working through" of the underlying emotional
a form of behavior therapy that deliberately exposes you to the very
thing that you find upsetting
or disturbing. It's especially useful
for people with obsessive-compulsive disorder or post-traumatic
Under controlled circumstances, exposure to the
event or things that trigger your obsessive thoughts or
reactions can help you learn to cope with them effectively.
at the entire family as a complex system having its own language,
roles, rules, beliefs, needs,
and patterns. Each family member
plays a part in the system and family systems therapy helps an
how his or her family operated, that person’s
role in the system, and how it affects the individual’s
relationship with the
current family and relationships outside the
family. Within this category there are various theories and
approaches to family
methods for adults are aimed at uncovering
the hidden purpose of symptoms using the therapeutic functions
insight and meaning.
Adler was concerned with the overcoming of the
superiority/inferiority dynamic and was one
psychotherapists to discard the analytic couch in favor of two chairs.
This allows the clinician and patient to
more or less as
equals. Therapeutic methods were not limited to treatment
after-the-fact but extend to the
realm of prevention
future problems in the child. Prevention strategies include
belonging, and a cultural shift within
families and communities that leads to the eradication of pampering,
neglect, and especially
focus of therapy
is to help individuals access more of their inner world (unconscious)
and develop greater
self-realization and individuation. Carl. G.
Jung's theory is psychoanalytic, but differs from traditional
Freudian theory in
that Jung added the concepts of individuation
(human potential), which includes transcendence and spirituality.
People are seen
in a positive light and therapy considers the soul,
which seeks to be nurtured by something larger than the self.
long-term, intensive therapy that often involves several sessions a
week with a psychoanalyst for
several years. Based on the belief that
true change and growth comes from bringing unconscious thoughts,
and experiences into consciousness so that
behavior and thought is based on current reality. Key concepts are
behavior is determined by unconscious motivations,
forces, instinctual drives, and psychosexual events occurring
the first 6 years of life. Classical
psychoanalysis is an
and long term process with a focus on transference
(transferring eelings about and reactions to past significant
therapist) and uncovering unconscious material
through dream analysis
and free association.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) arose from experiences in
the application of Buddhist meditation techniques in
was specifically developed to reduce the number of relapses in patients
with major depression. MBCT uses
psychoeducation and encourages the patients to practice mindfulness
meditation. A core goal is to develop metacognitive awareness,
which is the ability to experience cognitions and emotions as mental
events that pass through the mind and may or may not be related
to external reality. The focus is not to change 'dysfunctional'
thoughts but to learn to experience them as internal events separated
from the self.
psychotherapy, based on psychoanalytic theory, focuses on increasing
awareness of unconscious
thoughts and behaviors, developing new
insights into your motivations, and resolving neurotic conflict.
It's less intense and
less frequent than psychoanalysis and is
usually done sitting face to face with a therapist.
psychotherapy includes a variety of therapeutic techniques, such as
exploring the past, confronting
beliefs and actions, and supportive
exploration of thoughts and behavior. Awareness of the link between a
symptom or behavior and an unconscious meaning or
motivator leads to modification of unwanted behavior or thoughts.
the latter half
of the 20th century, research into new psychopharmacologic drugs
exploded, with many new drugs being
discovered, created, and tested.
Many once-popular drugs are now out of favor, and there are fashions
in psychiatric drugs
as with any other kind of drug.
since the 1950s has the use of psychiatric drugs to restore mental
health or at least limit aberrant behavior, been a
part of medical therapeutics, when a number of new
were discovered, notably tranquillizers
are six main groups of psychiatric medications.
Antidepressants: used to treat clinical depression
Stimulants: used to treat disorders such as ADHD
Antipsychotics: used to treat psychosis such as
Mood Stabilizers: used to treat bipolar disorder
Anxiolytics: used to treat anxiety disorders
- Depressants used as sedatives
(Rational Emotive Therapy)
is based on the
assumption that our emotions result from our beliefs,
interpretations, and reactions to life events.
It remains a
type of cognitive therapy based more on thinking and doing
the expression of feelings.
to be in the best position to resolve their issues if the therapist
can establish a warm, accepting, and
safe environment in which the
individual feels free to talk about his/her issues and can gain
insight into them. This type
of therapy is non-directive
because the therapist typically does not give advice or make
Freudian and Jungian psychology, Heinz Kohut, its founder,
postulated that narcissism and grandiosity in the
healthily managed by “self object”
experiences which can be
mirroring, or twinning experiences. The
experience of the
infant is the most important and it is the primary
responsibility to respond to the infant in an
validating manner. The relationship between client and
most important, like that of mother and
child, and the healing comes
with the resolution, understanding and working through of that
treatment presumes that most psychological problems are present only
therapy helps the patient notice
when symptoms are diminished or absent and use this knowledge as a
recovery. If a patient insists that the symptoms are
constant and unrelieved, the therapist works with him or her to
exceptions and make the exceptions more frequent, predictable,
controllable. Therapy builds on solutions already
available to the