BACA, JOSEPH ANTONIO

Joseph Antonio Baca was listed as a petitioner within the 1763 document approving the San Miguel de Laredo Carnué Land Grant. He was also discussed within the document prepared by Alcade Antonio Baca describing the land distribution. (1) A Francisco Baca, whose identity thus far is unknown, also lived in Carnué as his name had been added to the list of petitioners in the granting order of 1763.(2) It is not known if he was a relative of Joseph Antonio's. Joseph Antonio Baca was not involved in the 1768 cattle theft investigation, but he did sign the petition to abandon Carnué in April of 1771. (3)

Joseph Antonio Baca was an español, and born in 1743.(4) He was the only petitioner who was not married in 1763. Governor Cachupin warned him in the granting document of 1763 that "he should, in order that he may participate in this grant, marry for the increase and concord of this settlement, and in case he should not wish to do so, it shall be void and another family be put in his place if they should want to settle." (5) Twenty year old Baca, however, was not in any hurry to marry and he didn't allow the Governor's warning to affect his move to Carnué at all. He was already a "resident of Carnué" on May 4, 1769 when he finally married Juana Maria Susana Carabajal, the daughter of Lorenso Carabajal and Luisa de Ynojos (or Cadena). (6) (The parents of Joseph Antonio Baca are not named within the marriage record, but a discussion of his possible ancestry will follow the presentation of his descendants below.)

Maria Susana Carabajal was baptized on Jan 2, 1754(7) the daughter of Lorenzo Carabajal and Luisa Cardena. Her godparents were Juan de Ulibarri and Rosalia (n.s.) Juan Crisostomo de Ulibarri was an Apache settler of Carnué who was married to Rosalia Duran de Armijo. (See Ulibarri family) Lorenzo Carabajal and Luisa Cadena had another daughter, Maria Cilberia Carabajal, who was baptized on Nov 15, 1750 by godparents Esteban Martin and Micaela Carabajal. (8)

In 1790 Joseph Antonio Baca was living with his family in Albuquerque:

"Jose Anto Baca, Spanish, 47 years (born in 1743), day laborer, m. Ma Susana Carvajal, Spanish, 22 years (born in 1768(9)). One son, 2 years old, and three daughters, ages 16, 12, and 8." His mother-in-law, Luisa Cadena, 49 years (born 1741) is listed as widowed and living with them, along with her own two daughters ages 26, and 24.(10)

Descendants of Joseph Antonio Baca and Maria Susana Carabajal

1..... Francisco Baca, who died Nov 15, 1770 as a child.(11)

1..... Julian Antonio Baca baptized Jan 13, 1773 (12) by godparents Lasaro Garcia and Maria Ygnacia Valdes.

1..... Maria de la Luz Baca Spanish baptized Nov 16, 1774(13) by godparents Joseph Antonio Jaramillo and Maria Josepha Garcia de Noriega.

1..... Maria Barbara Baca baptized Jan 29, 1778 (14) by godparentsYgnacio Chaves and Ursula Sanches. Her godfather, Ygnacio Chaves, is the son of Francisco Duran y Chaves and Juana Baca.

1..... Maria Antonia de los Dolores Baca Spanish baptized Jun 3, 1783(15) by godparents Juan Jose Lucero and wife Maria de la Acencion Xaramillo.

1..... Jose de los Dolores Baca Spanish baptized Sept 16, 1787(16) by godparents Pedro Antonio Chavez and wife Catalina Baca, of Atrisco. His godmother, Catalina Baca, is the daughter of Ignacio Baca and Margarita Romero. A Jose de los Dolores Baca married Maria Josefa Garcia on Aug 11, 1810(17) with witnesses Paulino Lopes and Miguel Lopes present. There is no evidence, however, that the two Jose de los Dolores Bacas are the same man.

1..... Jose Rafael Baca, who married Juana Rita Candelaria on Oct 12, 1812(18) with witnesses Felipe Sanches and Antonio Lujan present. Juana Rita Candelaria was the daughter of Juan Jose Candelaria and Ignes Lopez.(19)

Rafael Baca and Juana Rita Candelaria had the following:

2..... Antonio Baca born 1815, (20) the 19 year old son of Rafael Baca and Rita Candelaria, married Maria Manuela Lusero, the 18 year old daughter of Alfonso Lucero and Manuela Crespin on Mar 24, 1834.(21)

Antonio Baca and Manuela Lusero had the following:

3..... Maria del Rallo de Jesus Baca baptized Jan 27, 1834(22) by godparents Don Manuel Robles and Doña Elena Domingues; paternal grandparents/maternal grandparents given.

3..... Salbador Antonio Baca baptized July 29, 1837(23) by godparents Salbador Martines and Maria Alta Gracia Martines; paternal grandparents/maternal grandparents given.

3..... Maria Teodora Baca baptized May 11, 1845(24) by godparents Blas Muniz and Maria Ygnacia Martines; paternal grandparents/maternal grandparents given. Blas Muniz and Maria Ygnacia Martines lived in San Antonio after the second Carnuél Land Grant of 1819.(25)

3..... Antonio Teresa de Jesus Baca baptized Mar 7, 1842(26) by godparents Jose Anaya and Antonia Teresa de Jesus Candelaria.

2..... Maria Guadalupe Baca baptized May 30, 1824(27) by godparents Lorenso Mestas and Gadalupe [sic] Garviso; paternal grandparents were Jose Anto Baca and Susana Carvajal; maternal grandparents were Juan Jose Candelaria and Enes Lopes.

2..... Vicente Baca, who married Josefa Garcia, the natural daughter of Braulia Garcia, of Albuquerque, on Nov 1, 1850.(28)

1..... Diego Baca who married Maria Francisca Samora on Jan 29, 1817(29) with witnesses Antonio Luxan and Jose Rafael Gutierres present. Maria Francisca Samora was a genizaro, who was baptized Apr. 15, 1800(30), the daughter of Mariano (or Juan Antonio) Samora and Maria Rafaela Munis.(31)

Diego Baca and Francisca Samora had the following children:

2..... Juana Nepomucena Baca baptized Jan 28, 1824(32) by godparents Jesus Maria Torres and Maria Dolores Torres; paternal grandparents were Jose Antonio Baca and Susana Carvajal; maternal grandparents were Mariano Samora and Rafela Munis.

2..... Maria Serafina Baca baptized Nov 15, 1825(33) by godparents Jose Santiago Martin and Josefa Martines; no paternal grandparents/maternal grandparents given.

2..... Maria Josefa Baca baptized Mar 20, 1828(34) by godparents Geronimo Pacheco and Maria Pascuala Sanches; paternal grandparents not given; maternal grandparents were Mariano Samora and Maria Rafaela Munis.

2..... Jose Maria Baca baptized Sept 17, 1830(35) by godparents Mariano Sanches and Juana Lorenza Lopes. (See brother with same name below.)

2..... Juan Bautista Baca baptized Nov 5, 1833(36) by godparents Baltazar Sabedra and Guadalupe Sabedra; paternal grandparents were unknown; maternal grandparents were Mariano Samora and Rafaela Muniz.

2..... Maria Juliana Baca baptized Nov 20, 1834(37) by godparents Don Juan Gil and Doña Teodora Lopes; no paternal grandparents/maternal grandparents given.

2..... Jose Maria Baca baptized Mar 13, 1838(38) by godparents Pablo Sisneros and Gertrudis Lopes; paternal grandparents were Jose Antonio Baca and Lus Garcia; maternal grandparents were Juan Antonio Samora and Rafaela Munis. (See brother with same name above.)

2..... Maria Baca, who had the natural child below. This Maria Baca may also be any of the above Maria's, i.e. Maria Serafina Baca, Maria Josefa Baca, or Maria Juliana Baca.

Maria Baca had the following "natural" child:

3..... Josefa Baca baptized May 10, 1849(39) by godparents Nestor Anaya and Maria Anaya, of the city of Albuquerque; maternal grandparents were Diego Baca and Mariquita Samora.

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POSSIBLE ANCESTRY OF JOSEPH ANTONIO BACA

The parents of Joseph Antonio Baca are not listed within any primary record. All that is known about him is that he was an español, and born in 1743.(40) The age he gave in 1790 is reasonably correct as he was married to Maria Susana Carabajal at the age of 26 in 1769, and had children to at least 1787 when he was 44 years of age. His ethnic designation of español is also very likely correct because it is consistent with the ethnic descriptions of his children and descendants.

After searching through baptismal and census records in the Albuquerque area for boys that were both español and born around 1743, nine possible Joseph Antonio Bacas were identified, and one Jose Roman Baca. Not surprisingly, the majority of them were found to be descendants of Cristobal Vaca, the son of Juan Vaca, and Ana Ortiz, daughter ofFrancisco Pacheco, who came to San Gabriel, NM from the City of Mexico, New Spain, on December 24, 1600 with other colonists.(41) Of the nine Jose Antonio Bacas found, six were eliminated from the list because they were found either to have married a woman who was not Maria Susana Carabajal, or because they were too young to have been the Jose Antonio Baca of Carnué. The Jose Roman Baca found was initially considered not only because he was born in 1744, but also because a secondary source identified him as the same man as the Jose Antonio Baca of Carnué. Jose Roman Baca was finally eliminated from the list because no evidence was found proving that they were the same man. No record could be found showing that the Jose Antonio Baca of Carnué ever used the name Roman, nor Ramon, as stated by the secondary source. The records of the six Jose Antonio Bacas and the Jose Roman Baca that were eliminated follow immediately for review.

WHO THE JOSEPH ANTONIO BACA OF CARNUE WAS NOT:

A] .....The Joseph Antonio Baca listed as the 8 year old (born 1742) son of Marcos Baca and Maria Jaramillo in the 1750 Census in Albuquerque is not the Carnué petitioner. [1750 Census #117, Alb. p. 82]. On Sept 11, 1766 this Jose Baca of Rio Puerco married Juana Chaves, the daughter of Ignacio Chaves and Gregoria Maese. [DM no. 15 Albuquerque Sept 11, 1766 p. 159. Couple were related by closed 4th degree consanguinity. See record discussed below.]

Marcos Baca was the son of Ignacia Romero and Gregorio Baca, who was the son of Manuel Baca and Maria de Salazar Hurtado, and a descendant of Cristobal Vaca and Ana Ortiz. [1991, Buxton, Margaret L. The Other Luna Family, pp. 7-8; DM no. 15, Albuq. Sept. 11, 1766 p. 159; and 1996 Hendricks, Rick. NM Prenuptial Investigations from AHAD, p. 125; NOTE: Some family records of Marcos Baca and Maria Jaramillo can be found in Albuquerque Baptisms p. 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, and 72.]

B]..... The Joseph Antonio Baca baptized Jan 24, 1756, [AB p. 65] by godparents Geronimo Jaramillo and his wife, Gertrudis Silba, and also the son of Marcos Baca and Maria Jaramillo, was too young to have been a petitioner at Carnué because he would have been 7 years old in 1763, and 13 years old at the marriage on May 4, 1769.

C] .....The Joseph Antonio Vaca Spanish baptized Feb 20, 1746 and son of Joseph Vaca and Josepha Gallegos, was also not the Carnué petitioner. He was baptized by godparents Bentura Candelaria and Innes Gutierres. [IB p. 121] He married Casilda Gregoria Barela, the daughter of Manuel Antonio Barela and Maria Concepcion Chaves on May 18, 1784. [IM p. 36 and 1790 Census p. 28]. He was 44 years old in 1790 (DOB 1746) and living with his wife and children in San Andres de los Padillas. [1790 Census, #505 p. 28]

His father, Joseph Baca, was the son of Josefa Baca, who was the daughter of Manuel Baca and Maria de Salazar Hurtado, and a descendant of Cristobal Vaca and Ana Ortiz. [1992, Chavez, Origins of New Mexico Families p. 144 NOTE: Some family records of Joseph Baca and Josepha Gallegos can be found in Isleta Baptisms p. 95, 97, 99, 102, 106, 111 and 117.]

The family of Joseph Baca and Josepha Gallegos appeared twice in the 1750 Census. Once in Albuquerque, and again in Paxarito:

Household #137 in Albuquerque: Jph Baca, Spanish, 40; wife Jpha Gallego, 35; 5 children: Barbara Anta 17; Ana Maria 15; Ysidora 10; Maria Anta 8; Jph 5 (DOB 1745); Christobal Montoya, Spanish, 25; Nerio Montoya, 19; Juan Franco Marques, Spanish, 10; Juana, Indian, 20; Maria Franca Gallegos, Coyota, with daughter, Maria de la Luz 7. [1750 Census #137 Albuq. p. 83]

Household #3 in Paxarito: Joseph Baca; wife Da Josepha Gallegos; 5 children: Barbara Antonia; Anna Maria; Ysidora; Rosa; Joseph; nephews: Xptoval Nerio (they are two individuals, see above); Franco; servant: Juana. [1750 Census #3 Paxarito p. 92]

D] .....The Joseph Antonio Baca Spanish baptized April 28, 1753 [IB p. 134] the son of Manuel Baca and Pheliciana Chabes, and baptized by godparents Domingo de Luna and Josepha Luzero, also was not the Carnué petitioner. This Jose Antonio Baca, the son of Manuel Baca and Feliziana Chaves of Atrisco, married Maria de la Lus Chaves, the daughter of Fernando Chaves and Antonia Sanches of Los Chaves on Nov. 17, 1784. [IM p. 36; and DM no. 5, April 14, 1784, Isleta p. 167 Dispensed with closed 3rd degree consanguinity.]

Manuel Baca was also the son of Josefa Baca, who was the daughter of Manuel Baca and Maria de Salazar Hurtado, and a descendant of Cristobal Vaca and Ana Ortiz. [1992, Chavez, Origins of New Mexico Families p. 144; NOTE: Some family records of Manuel Baca and Feliciana Duran y Chaves can be found in Isleta Baptisms p. 125 and 129, and 1790 Census p. 21.]

E] .....The Joseph Antonio Baca Spanish baptized October 15, 1747 [IB p. 124] and the son of Diego Domingo Baca and Doña Juana Duran y Chavez, and baptized by godparents Cristoval de Salasar and Francisca de Jesus (n.s.), also was not the Carnué petitioner. This Jose Baca, español of Atrisco, the son of Domingo Baca and Dona Juana Duran y Chaves, both deceased, married Dona Victoria Ana Duran y Chaves, española daughter of Don Tomas Francisco Duran y Chaves and Dona Tomasa Padilla, deceased, on November 11, 1784. [DM no. 13, Albuq. P. 167] The couple was dispensed with equal third degree consanguinity.

Diego Domingo Baca was also the son of Josefa Baca, who was the daughter of Manuel Baca and Maria de Salazar Hurtado, and a descendant of Cristobal Vaca and Ana Ortiz. [1992, Chavez, Origins of New Mexico Families p. 144; NOTE: Some family records of Diego Domingo Baca and Juana Duran y Chavez can be found in Isleta Baptisms p. 103, 106, 109, 112, 116, 120, 124, 127, 131, 136, 138, 142, 151, 153, and 172 (the latter two with Maria Antonia Montoya); and also Isleta Marriages p. 10 and 11; and DM records p. 65, 167, 601 and 602; and Albuq. Marriages LDS 016643 p. 70 May 2, 1790.]

F]..... In New Mexico Chronicles: Los Lunas/Los Chavez, author Carlos Lopopolo describes the Joseph Antonio Baca of Carnué as follows: Jose Antonio Ramon Baca, the son of Ignacio Baca (b. 1715) and Margarita Romero, was born in 1774 [sic], married Susana Carabajal in 1772, and had the following children: Maria de la Luz in 1774, Maria Barbara born in 1778, Maria Antonia de los Dolores born in 1783, Julian Antonio born in 1773, and Jose de los Dolores born in 1787. [Lopopolo, NM Chronicles Los Lunas/Los Chavez, p. 23]

The wife and children named are those of the Jose Antonio Baca of Carnué, but no direct evidence has been found proving that he is the son of Ignacio Baca and Margarita Romero. There is also no evidence that the Baca of Carnué ever used the names Jose Antonio Ramon Baca, or Joseph Roman Baca.

The Joseph Roman Baca in question was baptized Mar 13, 1744, the Spanish son of Ignacio Baca and Margarita Romero, by godparents Tadeo Romero and Angela Ballejos. [IB p. 116; NOTE: Some family records of Ignacio Baca and Margarita Romero can be found in Albuquerque Baptisms p. 63, 64, 67, and 69; Isleta Baptisms p. 116, 121, and 125; Isleta Marriages p. 39 and 26 (the latter was Ignacio's second marriage to Barbara Antonia Mirabal); Santa Fe Marriages p. 108; and DM records p. 162, 163, 165, 313, 1281, 2059, and 2060.]

No further records were found for Joseph Roman Baca, so it is unknown whether or whom he married. His paternal grandparents are not known, although Fr. Angelico Chavez speculated that Ignacio Baca, the husband of Margarita Romero, was the son of Juana "la vieja" Baca, whom he also mistakenly identified as the daughter of Manuel Baca andMaria de Salazar Hurtado. [1992, Chavez, ONMF, p. 145]

When Margaret L. Buxton re-examined the Baca records, she discovered that Juana la vieja Baca was the sister, and not the daughter of Manuel Baca, and therefore the daughter of Cristobal Baca and Ana Moreno de Lara Trujillo. [1991, Buxton, The Other Luna Family, p. 5 citing the El Ranchito Land Grant records.] This confusion may have arisen out of the marriage investigation (DM) between Joseph Antonio Baca and Juana Chaves (see A above). [DM no. 15, Albuq. Sept. 11, 1766 p. 159] [ibid, Buxton p. 7]

The DM record reads as follows:

1766, Sept. 11 (no. 15), Albuquerque, JOSE BACA (25) español of N. Sra. del Rio Puerco, son of Capt. Marcos Baca and Maria Jaramillo, and Juana Chaves (14) of Atrisco, d. of Ignacio Chaves and Gregoria Maese. Pair related, closed 4th degree consanguinity as follows:

MANUEL BACA

Juan Baca la vieja (sister and brother) Manuel Baca
Juana Baca la moza (1st cousins) Gregorio Baca
Ignacio Chaves (2nd cousins) Marcos Baca

[DM no. 15, Albuq. Sept. 11, 1766 p. 159; and 1991, Buxton, The Other Luna Family, p. 7 - however, she mistaken wrote "Ignacio Baca" when quoting the above DM in her analysis.]

She corrected the record to read as follows, which shows the relationship between Juana la vieja Baca, her brother Manuel Baca, and their father Cristobal Baca accurately:

CRISTOBAL BACA

Juan Baca - the elder (sister and brother) 1st degree Manuel Baca
Juana Baca - the younger (1st cousins) 2nd degree Gregorio Baca
Ignacio Chaves (2nd cousins) 3rd degree Marcos Baca

[1991, Buxton, The Other Luna Family, p. 7]

Was Fr. Chavez' statement about the parentage of Ignacio Baca based on his mistaken belief that Juana la vieja Baca was Manuel Baca's daughter? He could not have mistaken Ignacio Chaves (the husband of Gregoria Maese) for Ignacio Baca as the record above is clear about the identity of Ignacio Chaves as the grandson of Juana la vieja Baca. The basis for Chavez' theory remains a mystery. Although it is more likely than not that Ignacio Baca was related somehow to the Baca family, there is no real evidence to suggest either way whether or not he was the son of Juana la vieja Baca.

* * * * * * *

WHO THE JOSEPH ANTONIO BACA OF CARNUE PROBABLY WAS:

The three remaining possible Joseph Antonio Bacas all have one thing in common: Each are connected to Bernabe Baca, the husband of Margarita Pelaez de Mata. He was the godfather of two of them, and he was the grandfather of the third. The remaining three possible Joseph Antonio Bacas will be presented below, along with some notes about each family. Since each of these families are fairly well known, details about their descendants are not repeated here. Any one of the Bacas below could have been the Joseph Antonio of Carnué.

POSSIBLE: Joseph Antonio Baca, the godchild of BERNABE BACA and MARGARITA PELAEZ MATA:

This Joseph Antonio Baca was baptized Jan 12, 1743, [IB p. 111], the son of unknown parents, by godparents Bernabel Baca and Doña Margarita Pelaes. Unfortunately, no ethnic description was given, so it is not known whether this child was an español or a genizaro. If the latter, then he was not the Joseph Antonio Baca of Carnué. Given that his parents were unknown, he may have been adopted or raised by his godparents.

In May 1718, 22 year old Bernabe Baca (DOB 1696) married 14 year old Dona Margarita (Pelaez) de Mata (DOB 1704). [DM no. 9, Albuq., p. 156] The marriage investigation record does not list parents for either, but it states that the couple was "dispensed from unspecified degree of consanguinity". (This will be discussed further below.)

In 1750 Bernabe Baca was living in San Clemente with his wife and numerous servants:

Bernabe Baca; wife, Doña Margarita de Mata; servants: Michaela, Maria, Juana, Matheo, Dominga, Micaela. [1750 Census, San Clemente #3, p. 94]

Next door to Bernabe was a Maria Baca, widow, with several children, who may have been one of his relatives. Living on the opposite side was his daughter, Barbara Baca, her husband Don Juan Miguel Albares del Castillo, and several of their children. [1750 Census, San Clemente #4, p. 94; and 1992, Chavez, ONMF, p. 158-9 citing SANM II #586 and 642]

On Dec 1, 1760, Don Bernabe Baca, the 60 year old widower of Dona Teresa Gutierrez and living in San Clemente, petitioned to marry Maria Josefa Sedillo, the 18 year old española daughter of CaptainAntonio Sedillo and Gregoria Gonzales Bas. [DM no. 3, Tome, p. 158] The couple were married on Dec 9, 1760 with witnesses Domingo de Luna andJosepha Lucero present. [AM NMG XXI:4 p. 89]

POSSIBLE ANCESTRY OF BERNABE BACA:

Clues to the ancestry of Bernabe Baca are revealed in the DM records of his own marriage to Margarita Pelaez de Mata, where they were dispensed with an unspecified degree of consanguinity (see above), and that of his son, Baltazar Baca, to his second cousin Rafaela Baca, (see below) where they were dispensed with closed 3rd degree consanguinity because the groom's grandmother and bride's grandfather were brother and sister.

In her analysis of the Baca family, Margaret L. Buxton created charts which would explain the relationships based on the two DM records. Her analysis revealed that Bernabe Baca may have been the son of an unknown Baca female who was the sister of Manuel Baca (the husband of Maria de Salazar Hurtado), and the son of an unknown Chaves male, who could have been the nephew of Fernando Duran y Chaves (husband of Lucia Hurtado) and the grandson of Pedro Duran y Chaves and Elena Dominguez. [1991, Buxton, The Other Luna Family, p. 9-10] Buxton chose to illustrate a 3rd degree relationship between Bernabe and Margarita below, but since their consanguinity was unspecified, it could have been a 2nd, 4th, or a multiple degree relationship.

A combination of the charts created by Buxton in her analysis shows the following:

Confirmation of the above relationship of Baltazar Baca as the grandson of Isabel Chaves can be found in the marriage record of Baltazar's son, Miguel Hermenegildo Baca, to Maria de los Reyes Padilla in 1779. [1996, Hendricks, Rick ed. and John B. Colligan compiler. New Mexico Prenuptial Investigations from the Archivos Historicos del Arzobispado de Durango, 1760-1799 p. 45-6 citing Isleta, 11 February-13 March 1779, AHAD-30, f. 51-55] (See Baltazar Baca family below.)

In concluding that Baltazar's grandmother was a female Baca, Buxton examined the records of the grandparents of both Rafaela and Baltazar to find the brother-sister relationship. Rafaela's paternal grandfather was Manuel Baca, and her maternal grandfather was Ramon Garcia Jurado. Baltazar's maternal grandmother, Isabel Chaves, wasn't the sister of either of these men, so the 3rd degree consanguinity connection must have been through Baltazar's unknown paternal grandmother. She would have been either a Garcia Jurado or a Baca. To determine which, the DM record of Bernabe was examined next.

Buxton found that Bernabe Baca's father must have been a Chaves because Bernabe and Margarita could not have been related through her Mata, Martinez, or Hurtado ancestors. The parents of Baltazar de Mata were eliminated as a possibility because Baltazar de Mata was a native of Spain, and the son ofPedro de Mata and Isabel Martinez. [DM no. 10, 1704 p. 1205] The Hurtado family was eliminated as a possibility because Martin Hurtado was the only son of Andres Hurtado and Bernardina de Salas y Trujillo to return to New Mexico. [1992, Chavez, ONMF p. 197] In addition, Margarita did not have any Garcia Jurado ancestors either (in case their relation was through Bernabe's potential Garcia Jurado mother).

This makes their only common ancestor a Chaves, so Bernabe's father must have been a Chaves. The theory is that if Bernabe's father was a Chaves, his mother must be a Baca, because both Baltazar and Bernabe used that surname, and not Chaves nor Garcia Jurado, and this means that Baltazar's paternal grandmother must be a female Baca. However, Bernabe Baca has also been referred to as the Bernabe Jorge to whom Governor Vargas "granted the Pueblo Viejo at La Cienega in 1701". [1992, Chavez, ONMF p. 145] If this man is in fact Bernabe Baca, the use of the Jorge name cannot be explained, nor can the fact that he was given a land grant in 1701. Why then, would his son Baltazar assert in 1769 that he had never received a grant of land before, nor his father, nor their ancestors? Instead, Baltazar stated, his family had acquired all of their property through royal sale. [SANM I #114]

If Buxton is correct in determining that Bernabe's father was a Chaves, however, this becomes interesting in light of the fact that she also draws the same conclusion about the daughters of Juana la vieja Baca.

Juana Baca (la moza), 14 year old (DOB 1699) of Bernalillo and of unknown parentage, married Francisco Duran y Chaves, 20 plus year old son of Fernando Duran y Chaves and Dona Lucia Hurtado of Atrisco on April 26, 1713. Pair dispensed with 3rd degree consanguinity. [DM no. 4, Bernalillo, p. 305] Juana la moza Baca was the daughter of Juana la vieja Baca. [See the DM record above between Jose Baca and Juana Chaves.]

Antonia Baca, 15 year old (DOB 1703) of Bernalillo and of parents unknown, married Antonio de Chaves of Atrisco, widowed of Dona Maria Magdalena Montano, and son of Captain Don Fernando Duran y Chaves and Dona Lucia Hurtado on Mar 7, 1718. Groom requested dispensation from 3rd degree consanguinity, and 2nd of affinity from illicit copula with bride's relative, latter also related to him in 4th degree. [DM no. 10, Bernalillo, p. 305-6] Antonia Baca was the sister of Juana la moza Baca, and therefore the daughter of Juana la vieja Baca. [See relationship chart in DM record of Juan Antonio Baca and Barbara Montoya no. 3, Aug 10, 1770 p. 161 where Antonia and Juana are shown as sisters.]

With both of Juana la vieja Baca's daughters being second cousins to their husbands, Buxton concluded that their father must be a Chaves male. [1991, Buxton, The Other Luna Family p. 11] A chart of the relationships she described would have looked like this:

Buxton, almost as an aside, speculates that Bernabe Baca was probably the son of Juana la vieja Baca because he uses the same surname as her daughters, unlike their brother Miguel de San Juan. [1991, Buxton, The Other Luna Family p. 17] But there is more to speculate about than just their surname. Since Bernabe had a Baca mother and a Chaves father, he was more likely the son of Juana la vieja Baca than either of her sisters, Luisa Baca (wife of Ignacio de Aragon), or Catalina Baca (wife of Antonio Gallegos). Of course, this is assuming that Bernabe was a blood brother of Juana la moza and Antonia Baca, and not the child of an altogether different Chaves male. [See Baca family chart.]

The only problem with demonstrating this relationship is that the charts above don't support a sibling relationship between Bernabe Baca to Juana's daughters, Juana and Antonia. The Chavez male father is first shown as the nephew, and then the first cousin of Fernando Duran y Chavez. This discrepancy is due to the way Buxton interpreted the consanguinity relationship between Bernabe Baca and Margarita Pelaez de Mata. She chose a second cousin 3rd degree relationship because their DM stated an "unspecified" degree. If their relationship, was one of 3rd and 4th degree consanguinity, however, then all the DM relationships above do fit together as illustrated below:

The above illustration is, of course, based on deductive reasoning, assumptions, and convenience. Key evidence which confirms the model has not been found, nor have the relationships above been tested against all other known connections between the Baca and Chaves families. A major part of the mystery lies in who the proposed Chaves males could be.

Bernabe Baca's relationship to the Chaves family was never explicitly stated in any record, although he is named in several wills as a person that the deceased either owed money or chattel to, or vice versa. There are two early documents, among others, that record deals made between Baca and two sons of Fernando Duran y Chaves.

On March 26, 1732 Pedro Gomes de Chaves and Bernabe Baca, both residents of Atrisco, appeared before Alcalde Mayor and Captain of War of Albuquerque, Juan Gonsales Bas, to record a land conveyance. Pedro sold to Bernabe a piece of land which he acquired by inheritance from his father, Fernando de Chaves, for the sum of 100 pesos. The southern boundary of the land was adjacent to land owned by Pedro's brother, Antonio de Chaves, (husband of Antonia Baca). Pedro signed his name on this document as "Pedro Gomes Duran y Chabes". [SANM I #86 Albuq.]

On March 3, 1744 Bernabe Baca brought a lawsuit against Nicolas de Chaves, another son of Fernando Duran y Chaves, for dispossessing him of part of his land. Nicolas had acquired a land grant to the southern end of Bernabe's property (formerly land of his brother Antonio? or next to it?) and had overextended the use of his land into an area owned by Bernabe. Apparently Nicolas did not agree with Bernabe's assertion of his southern boundary, and so Bernabe asked Governor Joachin Codallo y Rabal to adjudicate the matter. The Governor found that Nicolas was subject to the terms of his grant, which stated that he was not to take possession of nearby property at the injury of a third party. He also found that Bernabe's land extended as far south as Tome, including the house which formerly belonged to Tome Dominguez, and consisted of one sala and measured between 8 to 10 varas. The Governor found judgment in favor of Bernabe and ordered Nicolas de Chaves to vacate the area. He further warned him that if he disobeyed this order, now or in the future, he would be compelled to pay 300 pesos. Baltazar de Abeytia, the Alcalde Mayor and Captain of War of Albuquerque, Isleta, Santa Clara, and remaining districts in the area, was placed in charge of executing the Governor's order. The Alcalde reported on March 9, 1744 that Nicolas de Chaves complied immediately and Bernabe was given possession of his land. [SANM I #92 Santa Fe]

Apparently the disputes between Bernabe and Nicolas did not end there, however. Two years later, on October 18, 1746 the same Governor was called upon by these two men to confirm and record a settlement they had reached concerning Bernabe's lands on the northern boundary in an area called "Juan Clara". Both men were referred to as citizens of Belen at the time. The agreement was that Bernabe was to give, as a gift and donation to Nicolas, "250 paces of land from the end of his boundaries on the northside to a large cottonwood tree which is in front of the corrales". They agreed that the existing house on that part of the land did not have to be demolished, but that Bernabe could use it if he wished. The Governor recorded the settlement and both men signed the document. [SANM I #184 Albuq.]

Several other documents attest to the interactions between Bernabe, his son Baltazar, and the Duran y Chaves and Garcia Jurado families, among others. To delve further would be beyond the scope of this article, but a great deal remains to be examined to understand their relationships with other families and to evaluate the theory of their ancestry.

BERNABE BACA AND MARGARITA PELAEZ MATA HAD THE FOLLOWING CHILDREN:

1..... BALTAZAR BACA b. 1725 [DM no. 15, Isleta, 1762, p. 158]

Baltazar Baca married Manuela Rael de Aguilar in Santa Fe on July 17 or 18, 1738. [SFM p. 8; and 1992 Chavez, ONMF, p. 145] (See family of Baltazar Baca below.)

In September 1762, Baltasar Baca, a 37 year old widower of Manuela Rael de Aguilar and living in San Clemente, and the son of Captain Bernabe Baca and Dona Margarita Mata, both deceased, married Dona Raphaela Baca, the 39 year old widow of Captain Diego de Torres, and the daughter of Don Juan Baca and Dona Petra Garcia Jurado, both deceased. [IM p. 13, and DM no. 15, Isleta, p. 158] Rafaela Baca was Baltazar's second cousin. They were dispensed with a closed 3rd degree consanguinity relationship because the Baltazar's grandmother and Rafaela's grandfather were brother and sister (See DM record discussed above.)

1..... BARBARA BACA DOB unknown, d. before 1756 [IM p. 9 marriage record of daughter Anna Maria Albarez del Castillo to Diego Antonio Sanchez.] Barbara Baca married Juan Miguel Alvarez del Castillo [1750 Census, San Clemente #4, p. 94; and 1992, Chavez, ONMF, p. 158-9 citing SANM II #586 and 642]

1..... Adopted? JOSEPH ANTONIO BACA baptized January 12, 1743 [IB p. 111] the son of unknown parents, by godparents Bernabel Baca and Dona Margarita Pelaes.

1..... Adopted? PEDRO ROMANO VACA baptized Feb 6, 1746 [IB p. 121] Indian, son of unknown parents, by godparents Don Bernabe Vaca and Dona Margarita Mata.

1..... Adopted? MANUEL PELAES baptized May 20, 1748 [IB p. 125] son of unknown parents, by godmother Dona Margarita Pelaes.

1..... Adopted? CHATARINA TOMASA BACA baptized January 4, 1750, [AB p. 64] the daughter of unknown parents, by godparents Bernabe Baca and Margarita Pelaes y Mata.

1..... Adopted? QUITERIA BACA baptized May 31, 1758, Indian child, daughter of unknown parents, of the house of Bernabe Baca [IB p. 148] by godparents Joseph Quintana and Antonia Petra (n.s.).

* * * * * *

POSSIBLE: Joseph Antonio Baca, the son of BALTASAR BACA and MANUELA RAEL DE AGUILAR:

This Joseph Antonio Baca, Spanish was baptized June 28, 1743, the son of Baltasar Baca and Manuela Rael de Aguilar, by godfather Captain Diego Torres. [IB p. 114]

Balthazar Baca married Manuela Rael de Aguilar on July 17 or 18, 1738 in Santa Fe. [SFM p. 8]

In September 1762, Baltasar Baca, a 37 year old widower of Manuela Rael de Aguilar and living in San Clemente, and the son of Captain Bernabe Baca and Dona Margarita Mata, both deceased, married Dona Raphaela Baca, the 39 year old widow of Captain Diego de Torres, and the daughter of Don Juan Baca and Dona Petra Garcia Jurado, both deceased. [IM p. 13, and DM no. 15, Isleta, p. 158] Rafaela Baca was Baltazar's second cousin. (See DM record discussed above.)

In 1750 Baltasar Baca was living in San Clemente with his first wife and family near his father Bernabe Baca:

Balthasar Baca; wife, Doña Manuela Rael de Aguilar; children: Franco, Joseph, Miguel, Maria Ysabel - infant; servants: Antonia, with son, Franco, Beatriz, Brianda. [1750 Census, San Clemente, #9, p. 95]

In 1750 Diego Torres was living in Belen with his then wife, Raphaela Baca and family:

Diego Torres; wife, Raphaela Baca; children: Cayetano, Juan Domingo, Martin, Nicolas, Bartholome, Manuel, Catharina Romana, Maria, Josepha de la Luz, Lugarda-infant. [1750 Census, Belen, #9, p. 95]

On December 16, 1768, Baltazar petitioned Governor Pedro Fermin de Mendinueta for a grant of lands near the Laguna pueblo and near an area called the Encinal, for himself and on behalf of his "two married sons", whom he did not name. He stated in his petition that he was a native of New Mexico and a current resident of Belen. He said that he, nor his father, nor his ancestors, had ever received a land grant before, although "we all descend from the conquerors of this province" and have provided service to his majesty when called upon. The lands that he and his father lived on, he said, had been acquired through royal sale only, and the area he lived on now was not sufficient to support his "rather large" family. The lands he wished granted were "situated in front of the Pueblo of Laguna more than 3 leagues therefrom, a little more or less, and from the place called the Encinal, about a league and a half more or less..." Governor Mendinueta approved of the grant which he named San Jose del Encinal on January 19, 1769, and Antonio Sedillo, Alcalde of the Acoma, Laguna, and Zuni pueblos, gave possession to Baltazar and his two married sons. Indians who lived in the nearby pueblo of Laguna were asked if they had any objection to the grant, and they declared that they did not. [SANM I #114]

BALTASAR BACA AND MANUELA RAEL DE AGUILAR HAD THE FOLLOWING:

1..... JOSEPH DE LA CRUZ BACA Spanish baptized Sept 16, 1739 [IB p. 104]

1..... ANTONIO DIONISIO BACA Spanish baptized Jan 23, 1740 [IB p. 106]

1..... JOSEPH ANTONIO BACA Spanish baptized June 28, 1743, by godfather Captain Diego Torres. [IB p. 114]

1..... FRANCISCO LAURIANO BACA Spanish baptized July 9, 1745 [IB p. 119]

1..... Adopted?: FRANCISCO BACA "Apache Indian" baptized July 23, 1747, son of unknown parents, baptized by Baltasar Baca. [IB p. 123]

1..... MIGUEL EMEREJILDO BACA Spanish baptized Oct 11, 1747 [IB p. 124]

Miguel Hermenegildo Baca, 33 year old espanol of Belen, and the legitimate son of Baltasar Baca and the late Manuela Rael de Aguilar, married Maria de los Reyes Padilla, 21 year old espanola daughter of Pedro Padilla and Victoria Chaves in 1779. The couple were related in the 4th degree equally of consanguinity on a transverse line. [1996, Hendricks, Rick ed. and John B. Colligan compiler. New Mexico Prenuptial Investigations from the Archivos Historicos del Arzobispado de Durango, 1760-1799 p. 45-6 citing Isleta, 11 February-13 March 1779, AHAD-30, f. 51-55; also IM p. 24 - Dispensed with 4th degree of consanguinity on transverse line - no parents listed.] The relationship was explained as follows:

Fernando Duran y Chaves (m. Lucia Hurtado)

Isabel Chaves (brother and sister) Pedro Chaves
Margarita Mata (1st cousin) Quiteria Chaves
Baltasar Baca (2nd cousin) Victoria Chaves
Miguel Hermenegildo Baca (3rd cousin) Maria de los Reyes Padilla

1..... MARIA YSABEL DE LA LUZ BACA Spanish baptized July 5, 1750 [IB p.128]

1..... MARIA APOLONIA BACA Spanish baptized Feb 17, 1754 [IB p. 136]

1..... JUANA RITA DE LA LUZ BACA Spanish baptized Mar 14, 1756 [IB p. 141]

1..... Adopted?: BARBARA BACA "Indian child criada" baptized Mar 5, 1758, daughter of unknown parents, in the house of Balthasar Baca (patron); by godparents Augustin Tinillo and Juana Maria (n.s.) [IB p. 147]

1..... Adopted?: JOACHIN BACA "Indian criado" baptized May 14, 1758, son of unknown parents, in the house of Don Baltasar Baca (patron); by godmother Quiteria Tenorio. [IB p. 148]

There is one piece of evidence which may give greater weight to the argument that this possible Joseph Antonio Baca lived in Carnue, but it is purely speculative. There was a Francisco Baca living in Carnué during the later years of the land grant who has not been connected with any other family. In April 1771, this Francisco Baca signed the petition to abandon Carnué along with Joseph Antonio Baca. If the two men are related, then this possible Joseph Antonio Baca may in fact be the petitioner, because he has a brother named Francisco Lauriano Baca, and his parents also baptized an Apache Indian named Francisco Baca. (See above.)

* * * * * *

POSSIBLE: Joseph Antonio Baca the son of ANTONIO BACA andMONICA DURAN Y CHAVEZ:

This Joseph Antonio Baca, Spanish was baptized Feb 23, 1744, and son of Antonio Baca and Doña Monica de Chaves, by godparents Baltazar Baca and Doña Margarita Pelaes. [IB p. 115]

Antonio Baca was the Alcalde of Albuquerque who distributed the land for the San Miguel de Laredo Carnue Land Grant in 1763, and the father-in-law of Alcalde Francisco Trebol Navarro, who investigated the cattle thefts in Carnue in 1786. Although Antonio Baca may not be the father of the Joseph Antonio Baca of Carnue, he has many descendants who live in the towns east of Albuquerque today through his daughter, Maria Barbara Antonia Baca, the widow ofPablo Rael de Aguilar, and her second husband Juan Baptista Duran. [IM p. 6] (See the Ulibarri family)

It does however, make sense that the Joseph Antonio Baca of Carnué would be the son of Antonio Baca in one respect: After he was warned by the Governor to marry in order to participate in the land grant, Joseph Antonio Baca moved to Carnué as a single man anyway and didn't marry until 1769 when he was already a "resident of Carnué". How was Joseph Antonio able to get away with this? Maybe because his father and brother-in-law were the Alcaldes of Albuquerque throughout the period of the land grant.

Antonio Baca was the son of Josefa Baca, who later had married (Jose) Antonio Garcia Sept 8, 1701 [Padilla y Baca, Bernalillo Marriages p. 6; and 1991, Buxton The Other Luna Family p. 14A] Josefa Baca was the daughter of Manuel Baca and Maria de Salazar Hurtado. [1992, Chavez, ONMF p. 144; and 1991, Buxton The Other Luna Family, p. 15] Manuel Baca, who died by 1727, [ibid, Buxton p. 14A] was the son of Cristobal Baca and Ana Morena de Lara. [1992, Chavez, ONMF p. 10 and 346] Cristobal Baca was the son of Alonso Baca, who was the son of Cristoval Baca and Ana Ortiz. [ibid, Chavez p. 10]

Antonio Baca, an 18 year old (DOB 1708) resident of Bernalillo of unknown parents, married Doña Monica de Chaves, the 16 year old (DOB 1710) daughter of Don Pedro de Chaves and Juana Montoya on June 16, 1726 [AM NMG XXI:2 p. 45; and DM no. 3, May 30, 1726, Albuq. p. 157]

In 1750 Antonio Baca and his wife were living in Paxarito with their children and servants:

Antonio Baca; wife, Doña Monica Chabes; four children: Polonia; Diego Antonio; Juan Domingo; Marta Ygnacia; Ysabel, servant; Catharina, servant; Barbara, servant; Joachin, with wife, Maria, servants; their children: Margarita; Juana; Franco; Juana; Salbador; Maria de los Dolores. [1750 Census, Paxarito #1, p. 92]

ANTONIO BACA AND MONICA DURAN Y CHAVEZ HAD THE FOLLOWING:

1..... JUAN ANTONIO BACA [1992, Chavez ONMF p. 144]

Juan Antonio Baca, Spanish, married Maria Romero, Spanish on Sept 17, 1753 in Santa Fe with witnesses Estevan Rodrigues and Antonio Montoya present. No parents are given. [SFM p. 20]

1..... MARIA BARBARA ANTONIA BACA [1992, Chavez ONMF p. 144 citing SANM I #1231; AGN Tierras #426 ff. 7-11; and 1750 Census Paxarito #2, p. 92]

Maria Barbara Antonia Baca, widow of Pablo Rael de Aguilar, married Juan Baptista Duran on June 6, 1747. [IM p. 6]

1..... PEDRO ANTONIO BACA baptized Sept 25, 1733 [IB p. 95]

1 .....JOSEFA APOLONIA BACA Spanish baptized Mar 29, 1736 [IB p. 98]

Josefa Apolonia Baca married Don Clemente Gutierrez, the son of Pedro Gutierrez and Maria Garcia de los Reynos de Castilla on Oct 13, 1755. [IM p. 9]

1 .....DIEGO ANTONIO BACA Spanish baptized June 3, 1738 [IB p. 101]

1.....JUAN DOMINGO BACA Spanish baptized Nov 3, 1740 [IB p. 105]

1..... JOSEPH ANTONIO BACA Spanish baptized Feb 23, 1744 [IB p. 115] by godparents Baltazar Baca and Margarita Pelaes.

1..... MARIA IGNACIA DE LA LUZ COCA (BACA) Spanish baptized Apr 23, 1746 [IB p. 121] parents are "Antonio Coca and Monica de Chaves".

Maria Ignacia de la Luz Baca married the Alcalde of Albuquerque, Francisco Trebol Navarro on Oct 9, 1765 [IM p. 15]

1..... Adopted?: SALVADOR CHAVES "Apache Indian" baptized Apr 4, 1745, son of unknown parents, by godfather [sic] Monica de Chaves. [IB p. 119]

1..... Adopted?: MARGARITA DURAN Y CHAVES "Apache Indian" baptized July 23, 1748, daughter of unknown parents, by godmother Doña Monica Duran y Chaves. [IB p. 125]

SOURCES USED FOR THIS SEGMENT

(1) New Mexico Land Grant (NMLG) Records, Surveyor General (SG) Case 150, New Mexcio State Research Center (NMSRC) Reel 27, Fr. 673-75, translated at Fr. 848-50.

(2) NMLG Records, SG Case 150, NMSRC Reel 27, Fr. 668-71, translated at Fr. 841-45.

(3) NMLG Records, SG Case 150, NMSRC Reel 27, Fr. 677-78, translated at Fr. 851-52.

(4) Olmsted, Virginia Langham. New Mexico Spanish and Mexican Colonial Censuses 1790, 1823, 1845. NMGS, Inc.: Alb., NM; (Abrreviated henceforth as 1790 Census) Plaza No. 1, Albuq. household #54, p. 4.

(5) NMLG Records, SG Case 150, NMSRC Reel 27, Fr. 668-71, translated at Fr. 841-45.

(6) Dreesen, Donald S. "Albuquerque Marriages" (Abbreviated henceforth as AM) series published in New Mexico Genealogist (NMG) XXII:1 p. 6.

(7) Members of the New Mexico Genealogical Society. Albuquerque Baptisms - Archdiocese of Santa Fe - 1706-1850. NMGS, Inc.: Alb., NM; (Abbreviated henceforth as AB) p. 117.

(8) AB p. 116

(9) Erroneous age given in census record, see baptismal record where she was born in 1754.

(10) 1790 Census, Plaza No. 1, Albuq. household #54, p. 4.

(11) LDS 016645 San Felipe de Neri Church, Albuq. Deaths 1727-1854, p. 66.

(12) AB p. 68

(13) AB p. 70

(14) AB p. 69

(15) AB p. 69

(16) AB p. 65

(17) AM NMG 24:2 p. 64.

(18) AM NMG 24:2 p. 65.

(19) Determined by the paternal grandparents listed within baptismal records of their daughter Maria Guadalupe Baca, and the age of their son Antonio Baca.

(20) Chavez, Fr. Angelico. New Mexico Roots, Ltd. (extracts of the Diligencias Matrimoniales) LDS microfiche 6051367 (abbreviated henceforth as DM) no. 11, Mar 14, 1834, Albuq., p. 184.

(21) AM NMG XXVII:1 p. 12; and DM no. 11, Mar 14, 1834 Albuq. p. 184

(22) AB p. 72

(23) AB p. 73

(24) AB p. 72

(25) DM no. 84 Albuq. May 7, 1831 p. 1361

(26) AB p. 63

(27) AB p. 70

(28) LDS 016643 San Felipe de Neri Church of Albuq. Marriages 1726-1855, p. 57

(29) AM NMG 24:2 p. 70

(30) AB p. 611

(31) Determined by the paternal grandparents and maternal grandparents listed within the baptismal records of children.

(32) AB p. 68

(33) AB p. 72

(34) AB p. 70

(35) AB p. 66

(36) AB p. 67

(37) AB p. 70

(38) AB p. 66

(39) AB p. 67

(40) 1790 Census, Plaza No. 1, Albuq. household #54, p. 4

(41) 1980, Espinoza, Gilberto "A Guide to New Mexico Genealogical Study" New Mexico Genealogist XIX:4 Oct 1980, p. 118; and 1992, Chavez, Fr. Angelico. Origins of New Mexico Families: A Genealogy of the Spanish Colonial Period Revised Edition. Museum of New Mexico Pres: Santa Fe, NM (Abbreviated henceforth as ONMF) p. 9-10, 141-145, and 346.

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