Regional variations in the relationship of diet and income in the U.S. and Brazil, 996: Methods and Results. , Ronald Calitri Abstract This paper uses common methodologies to study the relationship of nutrient consumption and income in two countries. All nutrients with recommended intakes are assessed from the U.S. Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, complete households, individual demographics, exercise, health, BMI) and the Brazilian Pesquisa de Orcamentos Familiares (POF; USDA NDSR-13; literature). Multivariate local regression profiles mean consumption and variance across incomes and other factors. Regional coherence of demand and sufficiency is measured with spatial statistics. The S-Plus results are mapped to ArcView. The influences of social and economic factors accounting for variations of nutritional status are non-linear. Mean nutrient consumption increases with income, as does the probability of being between upper and lower limits, especially for fats. The income elasticities of food spending and most nutrients decline from poorest to middle income groups, then rise again for upper income levels, accompanied by more rapid improvement of nutritional status. This pattern is connected with an upward "kink" in the food-share curve posited by Engel's Law above middle incomes in the U.S. and the highest income decile in Brazil. Adjustments are modeled to avoid underestimating the population experiencing insufficiencies or overestimating the well-nourished in both countries and their regions.