By Ben Mattlin • Bankrate.com - Posted: April 24, 2009
- Despite the recession, many consumers are actually putting more money into
- You can tap your savings in a downturn, but make sure it's for a necessary
- Tapping life insurance is an option, but it can diminish what you leave your
Financial advisers typically recommend setting aside at least three months' worth of living expenses in a safe, liquid
account in case of prolonged unemployment, sudden medical emergency or other unforeseen financial demands. This is called
your "financial cushion."
Yet in today's economic climate, is it really practical?
Tapping your savings
WiWith the proverbial "rainy day" now closer than ever, you
may be tempted to dip into your savings, not add to them. So under what circumstances is it OK to spend your reserves?
Are there better sources of ready cash to keep you afloat?
Saving during recession
"Don't expect to maintain your current standard of living," says David Hefty,
CEO and co-founder of Cornerstone Wealth Management in Auburn, Ind. "If you have children, use this as an opportunity to teach
them about sacrifice ... Use this horrible economic downturn as a positive and don't be a victim."
To be sure, there's no single, simple formula for not becoming a victim. What's right for one person might not be right
"There's no cookie-cutter or off-the-shelf answer to the question of what to do about your nest egg in hard times,"
says Rob Barmen, executive vice president at BPU Investment Management, a financial advisory firm in Pittsburgh. "It really
depends on your situation."
Ironically, despite these recessionary times, Americans are suddenly managing to put away more money, not less.
In early March, the U.S. Commerce Department announced that personal savings as a percentage of disposable personal income
surged to 5 percent in January this year, the highest level since March 1995.
"Consumers are fearful right now," says Michael M. Eisenberg, a certified public accountant and personal financial
specialist in Los Angeles. "If they have a job, they're afraid they might lose it. In a way, that's the silver lining
of this crisis. It's showing people they can and must save."
Spending during recession
Naturally, there are times when you can't save. There may be times when you're
tempted to spend your savings. That's fine, if you're prudent.
Job losses or urgent medical needs and other emergencies are valid grounds for withdrawing from a rainy-day fund, Eisenberg
says, but a sale at Bloomingdale's doesn't count.
"The emergency fund is there to get you through unanticipated crises," Eisenberg says. "You can tap into it for
spontaneous, one-time events, such as an urgent car repair or, if you've just lost your job, to make your next property-tax
payment, that kind of stuff."
At other times, though, it can be better to borrow money than spend your savings. Interest rates are enticingly low
at the moment, except on credit cards. If you can borrow at a lower rate than you earn from your savings, it might be a wiser
option. However, if owing money keeps you awake at night, it's probably not a smart move.
When to borrow
If you have to borrow money, a home-equity loan is often the best choice. The
interest payments are tax-deductible.
"If you need to make repairs to your house, for example, this is an appropriate source of funds," Eisenberg says. "If
your kids are in college and they have a semester or two to go, and you want them to finish that education, I can see using
a home-equity loan. Not for all four years of college; that doesn't make sense, but for short-term, major expenditures.
Don't use it for vacations or buying sprees."
But home-equity loans can be hard to get in the credit crunch, and they're almost impossible to find if you're unemployed.
What's more, property values have plummeted, and you don't want to tap the diminishing equity in your home if you don't have
to. If you sell your home later, before paying off the loan, you'll pocket less of the proceeds because a larger chunk is
going to your lender.
Some financial advisers prefer other options. For one, see if your life insurance policy has a cash value. Many "whole"
or "universal" life policies, as opposed to "term" life insurance, invest a portion of your premium payments in a separate
tax-deferred account. It builds value over time so that some benefits can be paid out before your death as well as after,
says Stacy Francis, a financial planner in New York.
"It's your money, it's in cash and there are usually no penalties for tapping into it," Francis says.
But there are two caveats about tapping life insurance:
Any cash you withdraw will reduce your after-death payout to heirs. It's not always a dollar-for-dollar formula, either. In
some cases, you could be reducing your death benefit by more than the amount you withdraw. Policies vary, so check with your
provider before taking out funds.
Don't access the cash value of your life insurance by taking out a loan against it. Often policies offer loans at a
lower rate of interest than banks with the cash value of your policy serving as collateral. Nevertheless, you are paying interest,
which makes anything you purchase with the funds that much more costly. In some cases, the loan plus interest can be deducted
from your death benefit rather than paid back in your lifetime. This may seem tempting, but again, it diminishes what
you leave your heirs, says Eleanor Blayney, a consumer advocate at the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards in Washington,
Asking loved ones
Another choice is to ask friends or family for money. Doubtless this will entail
emotional strings, yet that's no reason to avoid it. "I certainly would hope my child would come to me before doing something
foolish," Blayney says.
If you're going to borrow from an individual, draw up formal loan papers to clarify terms and clear up potential misunderstandings.
For advice in how to do that, see "Borrowing from family."
Often, family members prefer to give the money as a gift with no promise of repayment. Parents or grandparents
may enjoy doling out inheritance money while they're still alive. In so doing, they can avoid estate taxes while seeing how
their heirs use it, says Bill Schultheis, investment adviser and principal at Soundmark Wealth Management in Kirkland, Wash.
In 2009, individual benefactors can give up to $13,000 a year as a gift -- married couples, twice that -- without a penalty.
Larger gifts could incur gift taxes.
Money to avoid
In desperate times, smart people can make stupid choices. Here are several warnings
about sources of ready cash to avoid:
- Do not dip into your retirement accounts. If you do, you'll face taxes that would otherwise be deferred until
retirement and substantial penalties for early withdrawal. Plus, you will need that money when you get older.
"401(k)'s and IRAs give you creditor protection," Blayney says. "So if you're on your way to bankruptcy, remember that
those assets are protected."
- Avoid payday-advance or tax-refund anticipation loans. They carry very high interest rates for money that's yours anyway.
- Don't be tempted by a reverse mortgage unless you're a senior citizen who has paid off most of your mortgage and you
want to remain in your home and have no heirs to leave it to. The extra cash is generally not taxable, but look out for high
However you do it, taking charge of your financial situation can be as comforting as it is necessary. Still,
for some, the best comfort may be recognizing that tough times don't last forever.
By Ben Mattlin • Bankrate.com
Arranging a loan between friends or family members can be tricky. Honesty is usually the best policy, but careful
attention to detail also can help.
Experts urge you to draw up formal papers that spell out a precise interest rate and payment schedule.
These can't be just random numbers. The rate must meet the legal minimum, called the applicable federal rate, or AFR,
says Anthony K. McEahern, senior vice president and national director of Wells Fargo Bank's Wealth Planning Center in Denver.
The AFR is changed every month or two by the IRS. Currently, for loans of three years or less, that minimum is a low
0.83 percent. For those between three and nine years, it's a yearly 2.15 percent. Loans that go nine years or longer must
carry a minimum annual interest rate of 3.67 percent.
The loan agreement can further stipulate that you pay no interest for a period of time, or make no payments at all
until a certain threshold is met. In any case, the friend or relative who lends you the money will have to pay taxes on the
interest, McEahern says.
If you own your home, you may be able to use it as collateral even though your lender is a loved one. This makes the
loan more like a second mortgage. You'll be able to deduct the interest payments from your taxes. But if you fail to make
a payment, your friendly lender might be able to seize your property.
You may want to have an attorney draw up the appropriate papers.
Is it time to tap your rainy-day fund? See "Tapping savings in hard times" for more information.