CAMELINE SAUCE & VARIATIONS

19 recipes from 5 centuries

from Scandinavia, England, France, Italy, and Spain
uncooked, cooked, and one either way
organized by date written

Cameline Sauce neither looks like a camel, nor contains camels, nor is it a sauce for camels.  blushing smiley  Cameline sauce is essentially a thick cinnamon flavored purée into which bits of roasted or boiled meats were dipped for additional flavor. It probably takes its name from a word for cinnamon, "canel", with a shift from "n" (Caneline) to "m".

It appears to have been fairly popular, since i found recipes from five centuries and seven "countries". Of the recipes i found, the oldest i have -- although not necessarily the oldest ever used -- is from early 13th century Scandinavia, while the newest is from early 17th century Denmark.

This is by no means the ultimate definitive list of Cameline Sauce recipes - just the ones i found when someone on an e-list asked about a recipe. My thanks to Edouard (Doc) Haliday and Eriol of Lothian for sending me the oldest and the most recent.

More! More! More!

If you know of any more Cameline and Cameline-type recipes i missed, i would love to hear about it!

Questions? Comments? Suggestions?
... uh... that's Urtatim!


  INDEX  


VI. A Sauce for the Lords[Uncooked]early 13th C.Libellus de arte coquinaria[Scandinavia]

11. Salsa Camelina[Uncooked]probably early 14th C.,Tractatus de modo preparandi
et condiendi omnia cibaria
#394
[probably France]
152. Cameline[Uncooked]1380Le Viandier de Taillevent[France]
149. Sawse Camelyne[Uncooked]1390The Forme of Cury[Middle English]
Tournai-style Cameline, Winter[Cooked]1393Le Menagier de Paris[Northern France]
" , Summer
[Uncooked]ibid.ibid.ibid.

[93] Cenamata Cinnamon sauce[Cooked]late 14th-early 15th C.Anonymous Tuscan cookbook[Italy]
IX. Carmeline Sauce for Capon[Cooked]late 14th-early 15th C.Anonymous Venetian cookbook,
translated by Helewyse de Birkestad
[Venetian region]
LXVII. Perfect Strong Sauce[Uncooked]ibid.ibid.ibid.
XCI. The Best Carmeline Sauce[Uncooked]ibid.ibid.ibid.

A Cameline Sauce[Cooked or Uncooked]mid-15th C.Vivendier[north-east France]
A Cameline Broth,?circa 1466Receuil de Riom[France, the Auvergne]
Sapor Camellino[Uncooked]1470Libro de Arte Coquinaria,
by Maestro Martino of Como
[Italy]
Cameline Sauce[Uncooked]15th C.The Neapolitan recipe collection,
Translated by Terence Scully
[Italy]

Bastard Cameline Sauce[Cooked]1520Libre del Coch, by Maestre Robert, in Catalan[Catalunya]
1525Libro de Cozina, by Ruperto de Nola, in Spanish.
1529 ed. Translated by Brighid ni Chiarain
[Spain]
White Cameline Sauce
(with almond milk)
[Cooked]ibid.ibid.ibid.
Cameline Sauce
(with pomegranates)
[Cooked]ibid.ibid.ibid.
-[Cooked]circa 1585Ouverture de Cuisine,
Lancelot de Casteau
[French speaking Belgium]

XCII. A Good Sauce for Roast[Uncooked]1616Kogebog[Denmark]

Count of Ingredients from 19 recipes

Table of Ingredients by Book

NOTE: Recipes that mention "cardamom" may actually be calling for grains of paradise (or, less likely, maybe really cardamom).


Thirteenth Century

Libellus de arte coquinaria, Little Book of Culinary Arts, early 13th c., contains 35 recipes. There are four surviving versions, in Danish, Icelandic, and Low German.

It has been published as Libellus de arte coquinaria, A Northern Cookery Book, by Rudolf Grewe & Constance B. Hieatt, ed. & trans. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies. Tempe, Arizona. 2001.

ORIGINAL
Recipe VI [K6]. Quomodo temperetur salsum dominorum et quamdiu durat.
Man skal takæ gørfærs naghlæ, oc muscat, cardemomum, pipær, cinamomum thæt ær kaniæl, oc ingifær, allæ iæfn wæghnæ, tho swa at kaniæl ær æm mykæt sum allæ hinæ andræ; oc slyk to stekt brøth sum allæ hinæ andræ, oc støtæ them allæ samæ, oc malæ mæth stærk ædykæ oc latæ i en læghæl. Thæt ær hærræ salsæ, oc ær goth et halft aar.

TRANSLATION
Recipe VI. How to prepare a sauce for the lords and how long it lasts. [Uncooked]
One takes cloves, and nutmeg, cardamom, pepper, cinnamon that is canel, and ginger, all in equal amounts, except that there should be as much canel as all the other spices; and add twice as much toasted bread as of everything else, and grind them all together, and blend with strong vinegar, and place it in a cask. This is a lordly sauce, and it is good for half a year.


Fourteenth Century

Tractatus de modo preparandi et condiendi omnia cibaria, #394,
probably early 14th C. [probably France]

ORIGINAL
11. Salsa camelina hoc modo fit : accipe cinamomum plus aliis, zinziber, piper longum, grana parasidis, nucem muscatam, cubebe; et alias adde, si uis, species; que, peroptime trita in mortario, distempera cum aceto.

TRANSLATION
11. Cameline sauce is made this way : [Uncooked]
Take cinnamon more than the others, ginger, long pepper, grains of paradise, nutmeg, cubebs; and add other spices, if you wish; which, very well ground in a mortar, temper with vinegar. (my weak translation)

Le Viandier de Taillevent, 1380 [France]

ORIGINAL
POUR FAIRE CAMELINE. Prenez gingenbre, canelle, et grant foison girofle, grainne de paradiz, mastic, poivre long, qui veult; puis coullez pain trempé en vinaigre, et passez, et sallez bien à point.

TRANSLATION
152. To make Cameline [Uncooked]
Take ginger, plenty of cassia (cinnamon), cloves, grains of paradise, mace*, long pepper if you wish; sieve bread soaked in vinegar, strain [push through a sieve], and salt to taste.

* This recipe is the only one into which some translators have interpolated mastic thyme. This herb is also known as Spanish wild marjoram (Thymus mastichina) and the leaves apparently have a pungent eucalyptus-like aroma. But based on all the other Cameline recipes, i feel pretty certain that mastic thyme is a misinterpretation, and mace is actually meant.

The Forme of Cury, circa 1390 [Middle English]

ORIGINAL
149. Sawse camelyne
Take raysons of coraunce & kyrnels of notys & crustes of brede & powdour of gynger, clowes, flour of canel; bray it wel togyder and do (th)erto salt. Temper it vp with vyneger, and serue it forth.

IN MODERN ENGLISH
149. Sauce Cameline. [Uncooked]
Take raisins of Corinth [aka dried currants] & kernels of [wal]nuts & crusts of bread & powder of ginger, cloves, flour [i.e., powder] of cinnamon (cassia); grind it well together and add salt to it. Temper/moisten it with vinegar, and serve it forth.

Le Menagier de Paris, 1393 [Northern France]

ORIGINAL
Cameline. Nota que à Tournay, pour faire cameline, l'en broye gingembre, canelle et saffren et demye noix muguette : destrempé de vin, puis osté du mortier; puis aiez mie de pain blanc, sans bruler, trempé en eaue froide et broyez au mortier, destrempez de vin et coulez, puis boulez tout, et mettez au derrain du succre roux : et ce est cameline d'yver.

Et en esté la font autelle, mais elle n'est point boulie. Et à vérité, à mon goust, celle d'iver est bonne, mais en est trop meilleure celle qui s'ensuit : broyer un pou de gingembre et foison canelle, puis ostez, et aiez pain hazé trempé ou chappeleures foison en vinaigre broyées et coulées.

TRANSLATION
(Tournai-style) Cameline
[Winter - cooked] Note that at Tournai, to make cameline, they pound ginger, cinnamon, and saffron, and half a nutmeg, moistened with wine, then take it out of the mortar; then take crumb of white bread, without grilling/burning it, moisten with cold water and pound in the mortar, moisten with wine and strain; then boil all [together], and put in last of all some brown sugar; and that is winter cameline.

[Summer - uncooked] And in summer, they do the same, but it is not boiled at all. And in truth, to my taste, the winter sort is good, but far better is that which follows [i.e., summer] : bray a little ginger and a great deal of cinnamon, then take it out and have toasted bread moistened, or plenty of bread gratings in vinegar, brayed and strained.


Late Fourteenth-Early Fifteenth Century

Anonymous Tuscan cookbook, late 14th-early 15th C. [Italy], translated by Vittoria Aureli

ORIGINAL
Togli cenamo, zenzovo e pane arrostito (la crosta), e sale, e pesta bene nel mortaio : poi distempera con buono vino, e un poco cola, e fa' bullire un poco. Tale sapore si chiama cenamata e conviensi a tutte carni di caprioli e lepore a rosto. Nota che la carne del capriolo si può arrostire con ossa o senza ossa. Simile quella de la lepore e altre carni, cioè daine, cervi e simili, e a le quali si conviene il detto savore, e succhio di melangole con spezie, se tu vuoli.

TRANSLATION
[93] Cenamata - Cinnamon sauce [Cooked]
Take cinnamon, ginger and toasted bread (the crust), and salt, and pound them well in a mortar; then dilute with good wine, and strain it a bit, and boil it a little. Such a sauce is called cenamata [cinnamon sauce] and is appropriate for all roasted goat and hare. Note that goat can be roasted with bones or without bones. Likewise hare and other meats, that is doe, stag and the like, and for which said sauce is appropriate, and citron juice with spices, if you like.

Anonymous Venetian cookbook, late 14th-early 15th C. [Venetian region], translated by Helewyse de Birkestad

ORIGINAL
IX. Brodeto camelino a caponi
Se tu voy fare brodeto camelino per XII persone a caponi, toy VI caponi grassi, e toy tre libre de mandole, e toy doe onze de specie fine, e pevere longo, e noce moschade ben peste insembre, e toy li caponi e lesali, e quando sono alessi traili fura, e lasali refredare e toy le mandole con la gussa e lavale bene e mazenali. Destemperale con el brodo de y caponi magro, e metilo a bolire, e uno pocho de vino agro e agresto, e tolle specie peste assai quando sono ben boliti queste cosse trai indrieto per menestrare e non mettere li caponi dentro dal brodeto per scudelle, e meti suso de le specie piú fine che tu poy avere.

TRANSLATION
IX. Carmeline sauce for capon [Cooked]
If you want to make carmeline sauce with capons for 12 people take six fat capons and three pounds of almonds. Grind together two ounces of fine spices, long pepper and nutmeg. Boil the capons until cooked and chill them. Peel, wash and grind the almonds, then temper the ground almonds with the broth from the capons (strain off the almond milk). Set this (almond milk) to boil with a little sharp wine and verjuice, add enough of the ground spices when this sauce has boiled and take from the fire. Serve the sauce and the capons in separate dishes. Sprinkle the best spices that you have over the sauce in the serving bowl.
---

ORIGINAL
LXVII. Savore rinforzato perfetto.
Se tu voy fare savore reforzato, toy garofali e cinamo e zenzevro e un pocho de gardanino e noxelle pellate suso la cenera calda e un pocho de molena de pan e zucharo; pesta queste chosse insieme un pocho e maxena con aceto; e questo si è bono savore con zaschuno rosto.

TRANSLATION
LXVII. Perfect strong sauce [Uncooked]
If you want to make a perfect strong sauce, take cloves, cinnamon, ginger, a little cardamom, hazelnuts peeled by toasting over hot coals, a little bread crumb, and sugar. Grind these things together a little and mix with vinegar, and this is a good sauce for any roast (meat).
---

ORIGINAL
XCI. Savore camelino optimo.
A ffare savore camelino optimo, toy mandole monde e masenale e colali, toy uva passa e canella e garof. e un pocho de molena de pan e masena ogni cossa in seme e distempera con agresta ed è fato.

TRANSLATION
XCI. The best carmeline sauce [Uncooked]
To make the best carmeline sauce, take peeled almonds, grind and strain them (to produce almond milk). Take raisins (or dried currants), cinnamon, cloves and a little bit of bread crumb, and mix everything together, temper/moisten with verjuice and it is done.


Fifteenth Century

Receuil de Riom, 15th c. [France, the Auvergne]
put on line by Guenièvre de Monmarché

ORIGINAL
Ung broet kamelin. Les amandez broyees avecques l’escorce. Ce sont lez espicez qui y faillent : graine de paradis, gingibre, et poivre long, et grand foison de canele, et du succre, et tostez doradez a mectre par dessus quant on le dresses.

TRANSLATION
A cameline bruet. Almonds crushed with the skin. These are the spices which are needed for it : grains of paradise, ginger, and long pepper, and a great abundance of cinnamon, and some sugar, and golden toast to put it under it when one serves it.

Vivendier, mid-15th c. [north-eastern France]

ORIGINAL
Pour faire une saulse cameline. Prenez pain blancq harlé sur le greil ; sy le mettez tremper en vin rouge et vinaigre, passé parmy l'estamine, canelle assez et gingembre, clou, graine, macis, poivre long et saffren un poy et sel ; faictes boulir ou non boullir comme vouldrez. Auncun y mettent du chucquere.

TRANSLATION
To make a cameline sauce [Cooked -or- Uncooked]
Take white bread toasted on the grill, put it to soak in red wine and vinegar, and pass it through a strainer, a good deal of cinnamon, and ginger, cloves, grains [of paradise], mace, long pepper and a little saffron and salt. Make it boiled or not boiled as you like. Some people put in sugar.

Libro de Arte Coquinaria, Maestro Martino of Como, 1470 [Italy]

ORIGINAL
Sapor camellino.
Habi dell'uva passa et pistala molto bene. Et habi doi o tre fette di pane brusculate poste a mollo nel vino roscio più et mancho secundo la quantità che voi fare. Et pistarai inseme le preditte cose. Poi pigliarai un pocho de vino roscio, di sapa et agresto, et a chi non piacesse l'agresto farailo con l'aceto facendolo dolce o bruscho secundo che ti piace. Et passarala tutta questa compositione per la stamegnia, agiongendovi poi de bona canella et assai, un pochi di garofoli et noci moschate piste.

TRANSLATION
Cameline sauce [Uncooked]
Have some dried grapes (raisins) and grind very well. And have 2 or 3 slices of bread grilled then soaked in red wine, more or less according to the quantity that you want to make. And grind together the aforesaid things. Then take a little red wine, sapa, and verjus, and who doesn't have verjus will make it with vinegar, make sweet or sour according to one's wish. And pass all this composition through a sieve, add some good cinnamon and enough, a little ground cloves, and ground nutmeg.

The Neapolitan recipe collection (T. Scully, trans.), 15th c. [Italy]

ORIGINAL
105. Sapore Gamelino
Piglia uva passa he pistala quanto se po; poi piglia tre ho quatro onze de amandole he pista cum la uva passa, he due ho tre fette de pane brusculado posto a moglio in vino rosso, he pista insieme; hoi piglarai uno poco de bono vino rosso, sabba he agresto, facendolo dolce ho brusco como te pare; et passarai tute queste cose per la stamegna, giongendoli poi canella assai he garofoli he noce moscate.

TRANSLATION
105. Cameline Sauce [Uncooked]
Get raisins and grind them up as much as you can; get three or four ounces of almonds and grind them with the raisins, and two or three slices of toast soaked in red wine, and grind them together; then get a little good red wine, must and verjuice, making it sweet or tart as you wish; strain all this, then adding in a lot of cinnamon, and cloves and nutmegs.


Sixteenth Century

Libre del Coch, Maestre Robert, in Catalan in 1520
and Libro de Cozina, Ruperto de Nola, in Spanish in 1525.
(1529 ed. Translated by Brighid ni Chiarain)

ORIGINAL
108. Salsa camellina
Tomar dos o tres granadas albares : y desgranarias sobre untrapo de lino muy lipio : y desq esten desgranadas esprimirlas mucho de manera que salga todo el çumo y despues tomar un poco de pan tostado : y remojado cóel dicho suco : y despues toma buena quantidad de canela molida : y echala conel pan r majarlo bien en un mortero : y despues de majado destemplarlo con buen caldo delas granadas/ o con vinagre que no sea muy fuerte : y despues ponerlo al fuego a cozer trayendolo siempre basta que este espesso : y antes que bierua poner enla olla un pedaço de açucar fino.

TRANSLATION
108. Cameline Sauce [Cooked]
Take two or three white pomegranates and seed them on a very clean linen cloth; and when they are seeded, press them a great deal, in such a way that all the juice comes out; and then take a little bread, toasted and soaked in the said juice, and then take a good quantity of ground cinnamon, and cast it in with the bread, and grind it well in a mortar; and after grinding it, blend it with good broth from the pomegranates or with vinegar, which should not be very strong; and then set it on the fire to cook, stirring it constantly until it is thick; and before it boils, put a piece of fine sugar in the pot.
---

ORIGINAL
109. Salsa blanca camellina
AS de tomar almendras blancas bien mondadas r majarlas en un mortero : y destemplarlas con buen caldo gallinas que este bueno de sal : y despues passarlo por estameña : y poner a parte esta leche delas almendras : y despues toma los bigadillos delas gallinas : y majalos bien en un mortero : y despues destemplarlo conla leche delas almendras : y ponlo al fuego a cozer : y echar enla olla açucar /y çumo de granadas. agras : y vinagre blanco : y clavos y nuezes noscadas y canela y gingibre y pimienta luenga yr açucar blanco : y todo esto sea bien molido : y echado enla olla porque bierua : y menearlo siempre con un palo : y desque este espesso sera cozido : mas a se de catar de sal y de sabor : y de salsa y de dulcor y agror : y antes que sea cozido echarle de buen caldo delas gallinas que sea bien gordo enla olla : y a deser del suco que cae delas gallinas alladas sobre alguna caçuela.

TRANSLATION
109. White Cameline Sauce [Cooked]
You must take well-peeled blanched almonds and grind them in a mortar; and blend them with good hen's broth, which is well-salted, and then strain it through a woolen cloth; and set aside this almond milk, and then take the livers from the hens, and grind them well in a mortar; and then blend them with the almond milk and set it on the fire to cook; and cast sugar and the juice of sour pomegranates into the pot, and white vinegar, and cloves, & nutmeg, & cinnamon, & ginger, & long pepper, & white sugar; and all this should be well-ground and cast into the pot so that it can boil; and stir it constantly with a stick; and when it is thick, it will be cooked; but taste for salt, and for flavor, and for spice, and for sweetness, and sourness; and before it is cooked, cast in good hen's broth, which is quite fatty, into the pot, and it must be from the juice that falls from the roasting hens into a casserole.
---

ORIGINAL
162. Bastarda camelina
Viras pocas de almendras tostadas tomaras. y majarlas as bien con una tostada de pan con los bigadillos de alguna volateria que comiercn. y todo esto sea bien majado. y paslado con çumo de granada agra : y caldo. y con mucha canela. y con un poco de las otras especias salvo açafran : y delque todo esto sea passado va ya al fuego. y esta salsa va de ser agra dulce. y desque sea cozida echarle harta grassa. y encima açucar y canela.

TRANSLATION
162. Bastard Cameline Sauce [Cooked]
You will take a few toasted almonds. And grind them well with a toasted bread with the livers of some fowl which they will be eating. And all this should be well-ground, and strained with juice of sour pomegranate, and broth, and with much cinnamon, and with a little of the other spices except saffron; and when all this is strained, let it go to the fire. And this sauce must be sweet-sour. And when it is cooked, cast in enough fat, and sugar and cinnamon on top.

NOTE: Brighid, the translator, wrote : "Before you ask, I'm not sure how the last one got its name. In medieval recipes "bastard" usually seems to mean a fake version, an inexpensive substitute for the real thing. Since the only common element in cameline sauces is cinnamon, I'm not sure what makes this version less legitimate than the rest."

Ouverture de Cuisine, Lancelot de Casteau, circa 1585 [Belgium]
(my translation)
While this cookbook was not published until 1604, it had actually been written in the last quarter of the 16th c., likely in the 1580s
This is an excerpt from a recipe that contains a Cameline sauce, although not given that name.

ORIGINAL
Heuspot de venaison. (page 14)
Pour heuspot de venaison, soit de sanglier ou de cerf, prennez pain bruslè, & faictes poiure passer l'estamine, & mettez dedans noix muscade, poiure, claussons & pouldre, succre, canelle, vin rouge, deux ou trois oignons haschez menus, fricassez en beurre, & faictes les bien bouillir ensemble tant qu'il soit luysant.

TRANSLATION
Hochepot of wild game [Cooked]
For hochepot of wild game, either of boar or of (large) red deer, take roasted bread, & pass pepper through a sieve, & put in nutmeg, pepper, cloves & [spice] powder, sugar, cinnamon, red wine, 2 or 3 onions finely chopped, fry in butter, & boil well together so that it becomes glossy.


Seventeenth Century

Kogebog, Denmark, 1616

ORIGINAL
XCII. Et got Salsament til steeg.
TAg smaastøtte Mandel/ giff der iblant reffuen simle/ oc riff det smuck smaat blant huer andet/ giør det til met vijn/ oc giff støtte Caneel/ Ingefer/ Muskater/ der [p. 75] iblant/ giør det søt eller surt/ efftersom dig selff got siunis/ oc sæt det frem met steegen.

TRANSLATION
XCII - A good sauce for roast [Uncooked]
Take finely chopped almonds. Give thereto grated simle [bread] and grate it fine and small together. Make it up with wine and give to it ground cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg. Make it sweet or sour as it suits yourself, and put it out with the roast.


German Language Cameline

While two recipes originally in any of three Germanic languages were passed along to me (#1 and #17), I don't have any Cameline-type recipes from German-speaking areas.

Has anyone noticed any other Cameline-type sauces in the German language or dialect? If so, please send any to me. Thanks!

Questions? Comments? Suggestions?
... errr... Urtatim!

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Ingredient Count - 19 recipes

Cinnamon 18
Ginger 12
Cloves 10
Nutmeg 9
Long Pepper 6
Grains of Paradise 4 (or 6, if "cardamom" is grains)
Salt 4
Cardamom 2 (may actually be Grains, q.v.)
Mace 2
(Round) Pepper 2
Saffron 2
Cubeb 1
Spices, unspecified,Optional 2
Spices, Fine 1
other spices except saffron 1
Spice Powder 1
-----
Almonds 7
Hazelnuts 1
Walnuts 1
Bread 16
Livers, chicken 2
Onions, Fried in Butter 1 Fat 1
-----
Vinegar 10
Wine 8
Verjus 3
Verjus or vinegar 1
Broth, chicken 3
Pomegranate, Sour, Juice 2
Pomegranate, White, Juice 1
Must 1
Sapa 1
Water 1
Citron Juice, optional 1
-----
Sugar 10
Currants 3 (which are actually tiny raisins)
Raisins 2


Table of Ingredients

  13 14 14 14 14 14 14 / 15 14 / 15 14 / 15 14 / 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17
  Scand. England France France France France Tuscan Venetian Venetian Venetian France France Italy Italy Spain Spain Spain Belgium Denmark
  Libellus Form of Curye Tractatus Taillevent Menagier
winter
Menagier
summer
  camelino perfetto optimo Riom Vivenier Martino Naples Nola
camellina
Nola
blanca
Nola
bastarda
Casteau Kogebok
Cardamom X               X                    
Cinnamon X X X X X X X   X X X X X X X X X X X
Clove X X   X         X X   X X X   X   X  
Cubeb     X                                
Ginger X X X X X X X   X   X X       X     X
Grains of Paradise     X X             X X              
Long Pepper     X X       X     X X       X      
Mace       X               X              
Nutmeg X   X   X     X         X X   X   X X
(Round) Pepper X                                 X  
Saffron         X             X              
Salt   X   X     X         X              
Spices, unspecified     Opt.       Opt. Fine                 others except saffron powder  
Almonds               X   X X     X   X X   X
Hazelnuts                 X                    
Walnuts   X                                  
Bread Toast crusts   X White Toast Toast   X X Toast White Toast Toast Toast Toast   Toast Toast Simle
Onions                                   Fried in butter  
Fat                                 X    
Livers, chicken                               X X    
Broth, chicken               X               X X    
Citron Juice             Opt.                        
Pomegranate, White, Juice                             X        
Pomegranate, Sour, Juice                               X X    
Verjus               X   X       X          
Verjus or vinegar                         X            
Vinegar strong X X X   X X   X     X     not strong White      
Must                           X          
Sapa                         X            
Wine         X   good sharp       Red Red Red       Red X
Water         X                            
Currants   X         X     X                  
Raisins                           X     on top
Sugar         Brown       X   X X Opt. Opt. Fine White   X Opt.
  Libellus Form of Curye Tractatus Taillevent Menagier
winter
Menagier
summer
Tuscan Venetian
camelino
Venetian
perfetto
Venetian
optimo
Riom Vivenier Martino Naples Nola
camellina
Nola
blanca
Nola
bastarda
Casteau Kogebok