Twenty-three German Mushroom Recipes

Translated by Anahita

now known as Urtatim (err-tah-TEEM)


--- Introduction ---

When I was preparing the German Boar Hunt in 2001, I was looking for German mushroom recipes. Thomas Gloning, a professor at a German university who used to be on the SCA-Cooks list, was kind enough to find fifteen for me in Marx Rumpolt's cookbook (16th c.) and send them to me untranslated, apologizing that he didn't have time to translate them. Sheesh! I thought that was awfully generous of him just to find all those recipes!

Then Thomas sent me another batch of eight recipes from five other books, for a total of twenty-three recipes. I owe him many thanks for his kindness and generosity in the midst of his busy schedule.

Although I only studied Modern German for about one semester back in the 1970's, I translated them with a combination of experience reading Form of Curye and the help of a dictionary of modern German. Then Gwen Cat was kind enough to look over the first batch of seven translations and make a few suggestions.

However, Parts Two and Three didn't get "vetted" until much later. Giano, a German living in Germany who writes impeccable English and who plays in the SCA, looked them over and commented on them. Alas, i lost his comments in a hard drive crash, but he was kind enough to look them over again and make new comments in the summer of 2004. In many cases i have incorporated his comments into recipes - i've also included quotes from him when i found his remarks especially interesting (or funny).

Every different kind of mushroom has a distinctive flavor. So while many different kinds of mushrooms appear to be cooked similarly (wash, salt and pepper, grill or roast with butter), they will taste different. The kind that is most common today in supermarkets (champignons or button mushrooms) are almost flavorless compared to many other kinds of mushrooms (and i love even those little white champignons).

However, the recipes seem to me dependent on using the mushrooms specified, no doubt found in the wild. While many of these are available in the supermarkets around here, they would be rather costly for 80 to 90 people, so i bought a flat of little mushrooms and cooked them according to Form of Curye.

Giano notes:

Mushroom names have long been a regional thing, and in general (in my experience) if you go looking for your own, you take what there is. Therefore I would assume the recipes leave some room for variation.

Thanks to my own searches of German language websites, several German speakers who e-mailed mek, and a couple researchers on the SCA-Cooks list, especially Katherine (wheezul), i have the names of several more "mystery" mushrooms:

  • Keiserling is Amanita caesarea (do NOT confuse with potentially deadly A. muscaria!!!);
  • Peltzschwammen is cêpes aka porcini mushroom (Boletus edulis);
  • Raysling is probably Rehling or Hendelschwamm = Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius);
  • Rotling is Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus) or Augstschwamm = Field Mushroom (Agaricus campestris).

And i now think Stockschwammen are the modern German Stockschwämmchen, Kuehneromyces lignicola (because they grow on wood), also known as Kuehneromyces vernalis because they grow in the spring. From what i can find, these are sometimes known as Redcaps in English. A tip of the hat to Mechthild Quattermart, a modern German SCAdian, for passing this information to me.

Warning: More common in North American, Australia, and Southern Europe is Kuehneromyces Mutabilis. While it can be eaten, i do not recommend hunting for it as an edible mushroom because it is easily confused with the deadly poisonous Galerina marginata, even by very knowledgeable people.

I am interested in learning more about these medieval German mushrooms (photos, for example), so if anyone knows about them, please write to me. My e-mail is at the bottom of the page.

--- Notes on the Originals ---

In Parts One and Two, from Rumpolt, the lines that read <<R-number>> are page numbers in the original.

Notes on orthography:
1. In the originals, wherever a vowel is followed immediately by a colon (:) this represents a vowel topped by an umlaut (..)
2. In the originals, where there is a "j" it is pronounced like an "i" or "y"
3. In the originals, where there is a "v" it often represents a "u"


--- Notes on the Translations ---

A commonly used word in these recipes is "begeuss" which would seem to be literally "be-gush". I have replaced it with "baste", although I love how "be-gush" sounds. Giano says it means that the butter has already been melted.

Another commonly used word in these recipes is "besträew" (various spellings) which is literally "be-strew". I have left it as "strew" since this word appears in English in "period" recipes.

Where the word "salz" is used as a verb it often means "to season", not just "to salt", as does the verb "pfeffern", not just as "to pepper" but "to season".

I've broken the lines in my translations to follow the breaks in the original, so that the translation is, i hope, easier to follow.

I've gone over them again, smoothing out a few things, and correcting others. I haven't rewritten them all in completely modern form, as i rather like retaining the "archaic" sound.

There are still a few words or phrases i didn't quite grasp, but i think even in most of those recipes, the basic gist is clear. If anyone has a better understanding, i'd appreciate your ideas for translating these better.

Update! By searching German language websites I have found the English for two of the previous mysterious mushroom names:

  • Keiserling is Amanita caesarea (do NOT confuse with potentially deadly A. muscaria!!!);
  • Peltzschwammen is cêpes aka porcini mushroom (Boletus edulis).
Even more recent update (early 2011) Thanks to e-mail from some German speakers who found my webpage and researchers on the SCA-Cooks e-mail list, especially Katherine (wheezul) and Mechthild Quattermart, i have identified three more:
  • Raysling is probably Rehling or Hendelschwamm - Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)
  • Rotling is either Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus) or Augstschwamm = Field Mushroom (Agaricus campestris).
  • Stockschwammen are the modern German Stockschwämmchen, Kuehneromyces lignicola (because they grow on wood), also known as Kuehneromyces vernalis because they grow in the spring.









Index

15 Recipes from Marx Rumpolt, 16th century

8 Earlier Recipes from Several Sources

  • Das buoch von guoter spise, c. 1350 - 2 recipes
  • Mondseer Kochbuch, Codex vind. 4995; 15th c. - 1 recipe
  • Das Kochbuch aus dem Wiener Dorotheenkloster, Codex vind. 2897, 15th c. - 2 recipes
  • Rheinfr”nkisches Kochbuch, c. 1445 - 1 recipe
  • Kochbuch der Handschrift, UB Basel D II 30 - 2 recipes
    (one is similar to a recipe in Meister Eberhard, mid-15th c.)




Seven Recipes from Marx Rumpolt, 16th century

with corrections and comments by Gwen Cat and Giano


<<R149b>>

119. Nim{b} Keiserling/ welche Schwäem{m} man gemeiniglich füer die aller besten helt/
wasch sie auss/ pfeffers vnd saltzs/
leg sie auff ein Rosst/ brat vnd begeuss sie mit Butter/
vnd gib es warm auff ein Tisch/
besträew es mit Pfeffer vnd mit Saltz/
so seind sie gut vnd wolgeschmack.

119. Take Keiserling (Amanita caesarea)/ which Mushrooms one generally holds [keeps] best of all/
wash them off/ pepper and salt (them)/
lay them on a Grill/ roast and baste them with Butter/
and give (i.e., serve) them warm on a Plate/
strew them with Pepper and with Salt/
thus are they good and well-tasting.

[Gwen Cat suggested Emperor mushrooms as the translation for Keiserling]
[Giano said: "Emperor mushrooms sound about right. I've found no references in my modern German cookbooks to 'Kaiserling'. "]

[Anahita says: In searching German websites on the internet, i have found that:
Kaiserling, Keiserling are called Caesar's agaric, royal agaric, or Caesar's mushroom, and the botanical name is amanita caesarea. Note that this is NOT amanita muscaria, consumption of which can be fatal, and that Amanita caesarea and Amanita muscaria have been confused.
At this point, i don't know what to suggest as a substitute. Perhaps you could try some kind of mushroom you've never had before.]




<<R150b>>

135. Nim{b} frische Maurachen/ wasch sie auss zehen Wassern/
steck sie an ein höeltzern Spiess/ vnd besträew sie mit Pfeffer vnd Saltz/
leg sie auff ein Rosst/ brat vnd begeuss sie mit Meybutter/
die vngeschmäeltzt ist/ besträew es mit Saltz vnd Pfeffer/
so werden sie gut vnd wolgeschmack.

135. Take fresh Morels/ wash them in ten Waters/
stick them on a wooden skewer/ and strew them with Pepper and Salt/
lay them on a Grill/ roast and baste them with May butter/ that is unlarded/
strew it with Salt and Pepper/ thus are they good and well-tasting.

[Gwen Cat noted: morels have lots of nooks and crannies and could be really gritty if not washed very carefully and in many changes of water]

[Giano commented that it appears to mean that the May butter is "unlarded - not mixed with lard. I don't know why one would do that, but I'm guessing for storage purposes."]




136. Du kanst auch Maurachen auff ein ander manier machen.
Wen{n} sie sauber gewaschen/ so thut man sie in eine Pfannen/ oder in ein Kessel/
thu Butter/ Pfeffer vnd Saltz/ darein/
lass damit auffsieden/ so geben sie gnugsam feuchtigkeit von jnen/
lass sie kurtz eynsieden.
Vnnd wenn du schier wilt anrichten/
so thu darein grüene wolschmeckende Kräeuter/
die klein gehackt seyn/ so werden sie gut vnd wolgeschmack.

136. You can also make Morels in another manner.
When they are washed clean/ then one does them in a Pan/ or in a Kettle/
Do Butter/ Pepper and Salt/ therein/ Let seethe therewith/
then they give off enough Moisture (to cook them in)/ let them seethe a short (time).
And when you want to make them quickly (i.e., serve them)/
so do therein green well-tasting Herbs/ that are chopped small/
Thus are they good and well-tasting.




137. Klaub die gröessten Maurachen/ die fein gantz seyn/ auss/
die kleine aber druck wol auss/
dass kein Wasser darinnen ist/ hack sie klein.
Nim{b} Eyer/ schlag sie wol durcheinander/ vn{d} lass durch ein Häerin Tuch lauffen/
thu grüene wolschmeckende Kräeuter/ die klein gehackt seyn/ darvnter/
thu auch die klein gehackte Maurachen darvnter.
Nim{b} Butter in ein Pfann/ mach sie heiss/
vnd thu die Maurachen vnd Eyer darein/ mach ein eyngerüertes/
vnd thu es widerumb auff ein Sack/ vnnd hacks klein/
dass wol durcheinander kompt/ pfeffers vnd gelbs/ saltzs/
vnd füell die Maurachen darmit/ thu sie in ein vberzindten Fischkessel/
mit frischer vnzerlassener Butter/ auch ein wenig Pfeffer/
geuss ein wenig Erbessbrüeh darüeber/ Saltz/ vnnd grüene Kräeuter/
die klein gehackt seyn/ setz auffs Feuwer/ vnd lass sieden/ dass ein kurtze Brüeh
<<R151a>>
gewinnet/ so wirt es gut vnd wolgeschmack.
Vnd solche Maurachen/ die zugericht seyn/ kan man auch wol braten/ oder in Pasteten eynmachen.
Du kanst sie auch mit Rindtfleischbrüeh kochen an einem Fleischtage/
so werden sie auch gut vnd wolgeschmack.

137. Pick the biggest Morels/ that are nicely whole/ out
But those that are small squeeze out well/ that no Water is thereon/ (and) hack them small.
Take Eggs/ beat them well thoroughly/ and leave (let) to drain (strain) through a Hair Cloth/
[straining eggs is common in Medieval/Renaissance recipes, either after they are beaten or in order to do the equivalent of beating them]
put green well-tasting Herbs/ that are chopped small/ therein (i.e., into the eggs)/
also put those finely chopped Morels therein.
Put Butter in a Pan/ make it hot/ and put those Morels and Eggs therein/
make stirred-food (in this case, scrambled eggs)/ and do it again on (in) a Sack/
and hack small/ that (the eggs) thoroughly that come well/
(Add) pepper and yellow (i.e., add saffron)/ salt/
and fill those (big) Morels therewith/
put them in a tin-lined Fish kettle/ with fresh unmelted Butter/ also a little Pepper/
pour a little Pea broth there over/ Salt/ and green Herbs/
that are chopped small/ set on the Fire/ and let seethe/ so that a little Broth
<<R151a>>
is obtained/ Thus it is good and well-tasting.
And such Morels/ that are prepared/ one can also well roast (fry)/ or make in Pastry.
You can also cook them with Beef broth on a Flesh day/
Thus are they also good and well-tasting.

-----

A somewhat smoother translation might be:

Separate the biggest whole Morels from the small ones.
Squeeze out and chop up the small ones.
Take eggs and beat well.
Add finely chopped herbs - in German recipes these are often parsley and sage, although others are possible - to the beaten eggs
and the chopped small mushrooms to the beaten eggs.
Put butter in a pan, heat until melted, and add the mixed morels and eggs.
Cook as for scrambled eggs. Put on a sack [to drain out the liquid - since mushrooms are often rather moist].
Then chop well. Add pepper and saffron and salt to them
And fill the large Morel caps with the herbed egg mix.
Put then in a tin-lined fish kettle with fresh butter and a little pepper
Pour in a little pea broth (but not enough to submerge the caps), salt, and green herbs that have been chopped finely.
Set on the fire and simmer until the moisture comes out of the mushroom caps and a concentrated broth remains. Thus it is good and well-tasting.
And Morels prepared this way one can also roast or bake in Pastry.
You can also cook them with Beef broth on a Flesh day
Thus are they also good and well-tasting.




138. Nim{b} Maurachen/ quell sie in einem Wasser/
druck das Wasser widerumb davon/
hack sie klein mit grüenen wolschmeckenden Kräeutern/
thu sie in heisse Butter/ vnd röesst sie/
nim{b} alsdenn Eyer/ die auffgeschlagen seyn/
saltzs/ pfeffers/ machs gelb/
vnd rüers vnter die Maurachen/
so wirdt es gut vnd wolgeschmack.
Also kocht man Lungenmuss von Maurachen.

138. Take Morels/ soak them in one Water/
squeeze that Water from them (and do this) again/
Hack them small with green well-tasting Herbs/
Do them in hot Butter/ and cook them/
Then also take Eggs/ that are beaten/
salt/ pepper/ make (them) gold/
and stir into these Morels/
thus are they good and well-tasting.
One also cooks Lung pudding of Morels.

[Anahita's NOTE: this probably means:
Lung Pudding can be cooked with Morels replacing the Lung
(Thanks to Giano for looking over my three possible interpretations and giving me focus)




139. Nim{b} düerre Maurachen/ weich sie in Wein/
vnd lass ein stundt darinnen ligen/ so lauffen sie fein auff/
steck sie an ein Spiess/ besträew sie mit Pfeffer vnd Saltz/
leg sie auff ein Rosst/ vnd brat sie geschwindt hinweg/
begeuss mit frischer Butter/
vn{d} gibs warm auff ein Tisch/
besträew es mit Pfeffer vnd saltz/
so ist es gut vnd wolgeschmack.

139. Take dried Morels/ soak them in Wine/
and let an hour therein lie/ so they swell up well /

[Thanks to Gwen Cat and Giano for interpreting "lauffen...auff"]
stick them on a skewer/ strew them with Pepper and Salt/
lay them on a Grill/ and roast them quickly/ baste with fresh Butter/
and give warm on a Plate/ strew it with Pepper and salt/
so is it good and well-tasting.




140. Du magst auch solche Maurachen zum eynmachen nemmen
mit ein wenig Erbessbrüeh/ Butter/ vnd ges[t]ossenen Pfeffer/
vnd mit grüenen wolschmeckenden Kräeutern/ die klein gehackt seyn/
lass darmit resch eynsieden/
dass ein kurtze Brüeh gewinnt/ so wirt es gut vnd wolgeschmack.

140. You make also such Morels to eynmachen nemmen [simmer?]
[Giano commented that "eynmachen" was to cook something for storage purposes, like making pickles or jam]
with a little pea broth / Butter/ and brayed Pepper/
and with green well-tasting Herbs/ that are chopped small/
leave to seethe therein quite briefly/ so that a little Broth is obtained/
Thus is it good and well-tasting.



Eight more recipes from Rumpolt

with comments by Giano who is actually German


<<R153a>>

164. Nim{b} düerre Peltzschwammen/
lass sie vber Nacht in Wasser weichen/
vnnd wenn du es wilt zusetzen/
so thu geschweisste Zwibeln darein/
mit eyngebrenntem Mehl/
geuss Erbessbrüeh oder Wasser darüeber/
vnd lass ein stundt oder zwo fein gemach damit sieden/
wüertz es ab mit Pfeffer/ Saffran vnd Jngwer/
machs saur/ dass mans kan essen/ vnd schaw versaltz es nicht/
so ist es gut vnnd wolgeschmack.
Denn in Böehmen ist es ein gemein essen von diesen Schwam{m}en.
Vnd man kan sie auch wol hacken wie ein Lungenmuss/
vnd man kans auch zurichten mit Eyern vnnd Essig/
ist es gut vnnd wolgeschmack.

164. Take dried Cêpes/Porcini mushrooms/
leave them over Night in Water to soak/
and when You wish, set them on (the fire to cook them)
then put briefly fried (chopped) onions therein/
with toasted meal (i.e., flour)/
pour Pea broth or Water thereover/
and leave one hour or two to seethe nicely and gently (i.e, simmer) therewith/
spice it up with Pepper/ Saffron and Ginger/
make sour (i.e., add vinegar)/ that one can eat/ and see it is not over-salted/
thus it is good and well-tasting.
Then in Bohemia it is common to eat these Mushrooms.
And one can also chop them well such as for a Lung pudding/
and one can also prepare with Eggs and Vinegar/
it is good and well-tasting.

[Giano commented: "flour and butter, browned, for thickening the soup. Rumpoldt is one of the first writers in German to list this technique."]
[Giano also wrote that "this seems to be a soup recipe, but the thick kind of soup we are used to today."]

[Anahita says: In searching German websites on the internet, i have found that:
Peltzschwamman are cêpes, which are also called porcini mushrooms, botanical name boletus edulis. In modern German these are called Steinpiltz and are still popular in Bavaria]




<<R154b>>

188. Nim{b} Redling Schwammen/ schel vnnd wasch sie auss/
saltz vnnd pfeffer sie/ leg sie auff ein Rosst/ vnnd brats/
begeuss mit Butter/ vnnd gibs warm auff ein Tisch/
besträew es mit Pfeffer vnd Saltz/
so ist es auch gut vnd wolgeschmack.
Du magsts auch wol fricusiern in Butter/
mit grüene{n} Kräeutern/ Pfeffer vnd Saltz/
so ist es auch gut.

188. Take Redling Mushrooms/ peel and wash them off/
salt and pepper them/ lay them on a Grill/ and roast (fry)/
baste with Butter/ and give warm on a Plate/
strew them with Pepper and Salt/
thus it is also good and well-tasting.
You make also fricassee well in Butter/
with green Herbs/ Pepper and Salt/
thus is it also good.

[Giano commented, "Unfortunately I have no idea what 'Redling' may be in English. Must be a regional thing again."]

[Anahita says: In searching German websites on the internet, i found no mention of anything like redling mushrooms. However, redling may well be rotling which are Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus) or Augstschwamm = Field Mushroom (Agaricus campestris]




189. Du kanst auch die Redling fein klein hacken/
vnd auss Butter rössten/ geuss süesse Milch darvnter/
pfeffers vnd gelbs/ vnnd versaltz sie nicht/
so werden sie gut vnd wolgeschmack.

189. You can also chop the fine Redlings small/
and grill in Butter/ pour sweet Milk there-over/
pepper and yellow (with saffron)/ and do not/ over-salt them
thus they are good and well-tasting.

where Redling = Rotling = Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus) or Field Mushroom (Agaricus campestris




190. Nim{b} Redling Schwammen/
saltz sie eyn mit Wacholderbeern/ vnnd mit Küemel/
beschwer sie wol mit Steinen/
so werden sie viel Brüeh geben/
geuss ein theil Brüeh weg/ vnd lass also bleiben/
so halten sie sich Jar vnd Tag.
Vnd wenn du sie wilt zurichten/
es sey zum kochen oder zum Braten/
so legs herauss/ vnnd wasch auss/
lass ein stundt oder zwo im Wasser ligen/
so zeucht es das Saltz herauss/
werden fein frisch/
als wenn man sie erst abgebrochen hett/
so magstu sie zum Backen oder eynmachen nemmen/
oder magst sie fricusiern in Butter/
vnnd wol pfeffern/ mit grüenen Kräeutern/
so werden sie auch nicht böess.

190. Take Redling Mushrooms/
season them with juniper berries/ and with Caraway/
weight them well with Stones/
Then they will give off much Broth (liquid)/
pour a bit of the Broth away/ and let then stay/
then keep them (by themselves) a Year and Day.
And when you would prepare them/ it is to cook or to roast (fry)/
then take them out/ and wash off/
let (them) lie in Water an hour or two/
that draws out that Salt herein (i.e., in the mushrooms)/
they become nicely fresh-new/
as when one has first plucked them/
then you make them to Bake or cook them down/
or make them fricassee in Butter/
and well pepper/ with green Herbs/
thus are they also not bad.

where Redling = Rotling = Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus) or Field Mushroom (Agaricus campestris

[Many thanks to Giano, who corrected my misunderstandings in this recipe
He also noted: "I think 'Eynmachen' may refer to cooking them down to a kind of reduced stock or restorative soup. I could be totally wrong, though. As written, in modern German it means 'pickle' or 'preserve' "]




<<R155a>>

196. Schwammen. Weiss bitter Schwam{m}en wasch auss/
pfeffers vnd saltzs/ so legt man es auff ein Rosst/
bräets vnd begeusst es mit Butter.
Vnd wenn sie gebraten seyn/
so gib es warm auff ein Tisch/
besträew es mit Pfeffer vnd Saltz/
so werden sie desto besser.

196. Mushrooms. White bitter Mushrooms wash off/
pepper and salt (them)/ then one lays them on a Grill/
roast (fry) and baste them with Butter.
And when they are roasted (fried)/
then give them warm on a Plate/
strew them with Pepper and Salt/
thus are they all the more better.




197. Weiss Schwammen/ die auff der Heiden wachsen/
nimpt man/ schelt sie/ wäescht sie auss/
vnd thut sie in zwo Schüessel/ setzt es auff Kolen/
so wirdt ein schwartz Wasser herauss rinnen/ geuss dasselbige hinweg/
nim{b} die Schwammen/ pfeffers vnd saltzs/
legs auff den Rosst/ vnnd brats/ begeuss mit heisser Butter/
gibs warm auff ein Tisch/ besträew es mit Pfeffer vn{d} mit Saltz/
so werden sie gut vnd wolgeschmack.

197. White Mushrooms/ that grow in the Heath/
one takes (them)/ peels them/ washes them off/
and does them in two Tureens (full of water)/ set on Coals/
thus will a black Water run therein/ pour this off/
take these Mushrooms/ pepper and salt (them)/
lay on the Grill/ and roast (fry)/ baste with hot Butter/
give warm on a Plate/ strew it with Pepper and with Salt/
thus are they good and well-tasting.




198. Nim{b} Stockschwammen/ zerschneidt/ vnd wasch sie auss/
quell sie im Wasser/ küel sie auss/ vnd druck das Wasser wol davon/
hack sie klein/ vnd röesst sie auss heisser Butter/
geuss süesse Milch darüeber/ lass auch damit sieden/
pfeffers/ saltzs/
vn{d} thu grüene wolschmeckende Kräeuter/ die klein gehackt seyn/ darein/
so seind sie gut vnd wolgeschmack.

198. Take Stock mushrooms/ cut/ and wash them off/
soak them in Water/ küel (drain?) them off/ and squeeze that Water off well/

[Giano said "I have no clue about 'ku:el' - maybe simply 'remove from the water'?"]
chop them small/ and grill them in hot Butter/
pour sweet Milk thereover/ let also therewith seethe/
pepper (them)/ salt (them)/
and do green well-tasting Herbs/ that are chopped small/ therein/
thus are they good and well-tasting.

[Giano said: "I'm wondering whether Stockschwamm refers to a kind of mushroom that grows on trees? I'm a city kid and have no clue about 'shrooms. I was sixteen by the time I figured out they don't grow in 250-ml cans. "]

Stockschwammen are probably the modern German Stockschwämmchen, Kuehneromyces lignicola (because they grow on wood), also known as Kuehneromyces vernalis because they grow in the spring. From what i can find, these are sometimes known as Redcaps in English. Many thanks to Mechthild Quattermart, a modern German SCAdian, for passing this information to me.

Warning: More common in North American, Australia, and Southern Europe is Kuehneromyces mutabilis. While it can be eaten, i do not recommend hunting for it as an edible mushroom because it is easily confused with the deadly poisonous Galerina marginata, even by very knowledgeable people. Substitute a safe spring mushroom!




199. Stockschwammen mit Eyern gekocht/
seind auch nicht böess.

199. Stock mushrooms cooked with Eggs /
are also not bad.

See above recipe for info on Stockschwamme.





Eight Earlier Recipes from Several Sources

Commented on by Giano who is actually German

After the first batch, and knowing that Thomas is very busy, i was astonished to receive another message from him with the recipes below.

Thomas is incredibly generous with his time and knowledge - as are so many folks on the SCA-Cooks list.

In many of these recipes, the dialect is very different - or at least how it is written - from Rumpolt - some of these are almost 150 years earlier - and it was much more difficult for me to figure them out.

It looks to me like the "sz" = "ss" and the "cz" = "tz" in the Rheinfränkisches Kochbuch and Kochbuch der Handschrift. It also looks to me like they sometimes use "p" where later there is "b".

[Anahita NOTE: "v:" equals "ü", that is, "u with an umlaut"]






1. Ein Buch von guter Speise (c. 1350)
(ed. Hajek, #32)

32. Ein geriht.
Rib knobelauch mit saltze - die haubt schele schone -
vnd menge sehs eyer dar zv:o on daz wisse vnd nim ezzig
vnd ein wenic wazzers dar zv:o, niht zv:o sur,
vnd la daz erwallen, daz ez dicke blibe.
damit mac man machen gebratene hüenner, morchen
oder swemme oder waz du wilt.

32. A dish.
Crush garlic with salt - the garlic cloves having been well peeled -
and mix with six eggs thereto without the [egg] whites
and add vinegar and a little water thereto, not too sour,
and let it boil, that it becomes thick.
Therewith one makes grilled hens, morels, or mushrooms,
or what you want.

2. Parallelrezept im Mondseer Kochbuch, (Cod. vind. 4995; 15. Jh.)

A parallel recipe in Mondseer Cookbook, (Codex vind. 4995; 15th century)

(fol. 199a; cf. Nauwerck, p. 17 & 47)

[30] Wie man sallsen macht über h:nner mauroch vnd Swamen
Reib knobloch mit saltz vnd meng aier dar zv:o
tüo das weis ab von den aieren
nim essig vnd ain wenig
wassers das es nicht zv:o saur werde
vnd la das erwallen das es dik pleib
da mit mag man machen praten hüner morchen oder swammen

[30] How one makes sauce over hens, morels and Mushrooms.
Crush garlic with salt and mix eggs thereto
that have had the whites removed from the eggs.
Take vinegar and a little
water so that it is not too sour
and let that boil that it stays thick.
Therewith may one make roasted hens, morels, or mushrooms.





3. Das buoch von guoter spise
ed. Hajek, #79

79. Ein müos.
Der wöelle machen ein morchen müos, der nem morchen
vnd erwelle daz vz einem brunnen. vnd geballen vz eime kalden wazzer.
vnd gehacket cleine vnd tüo ez denne in ein dicke mandel milich.
vnd mit wine wol gemacht die mandel milich
vnd die morche dor inne erwellet.
vnd tüo dorzv:o wüertze genüoc.
vnd ferve ez mit fial blüomen
vnd gibz hin.

79. A pudding.
Who wants to make a morel-pudding, there take morels,
and bring to a boil in spring water. And rinse them in cold water,
And chopped up small, and then put in thick almond milk.
And with wine is the almond milk well prepared,
and the morels brought to a boil in it.
Add thereto enough seasoning,
And color it with violet flowers,
and give in (i.e., serve).





Kochbuch aus dem Wiener Dorotheenkloster, Cod. vind. 2897 (15. Jh.)

Cookbook from the Viennese Dorothy Cloister, Codex vind. 2897 (15th c.)

4. (fol. 14b; cf. Aichholtzer, p. 310)

Ein gmües von swamen
(W)Jldu gmüs machen von swam
so nym sie in dem mayn ab raysling vnd rötling
dy hakch klain vnd loss trukchen
so machtu sy lang halten in der vasten sie sein
als ich das sagen mues sy weren vor vasnacht auch guet
du macht sy haben wi lang du wild

[Anahita's NOTE: I ended up with a lot of unidentified phrases in this one. Giano was quite helpful]

A pudding of mushrooms
If you want pudding made from mushrooms
then take them, in May of rayslings and rotlings.
[Raysling is probably Rehling or Hendelschwamm - Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)]
[Rotling is Rothschwamme = Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus) -or- Augstschwamm = Field Mushroom (Agaricus campestris)]
Chop them small and let drain
thus you make them keep long (well) in the Fast times (i.e., Lent). They

[Giano said: "This one is barely understandable, but I think there's an interjection in here."]
I must say this, they would be for Carnival /Mardi Gras also good
you keep them however long you will.

5. (folio 16b; compare with Aichholzer, p. 318)

aber ain veyal müs
(N)Jm morchen erwelle die in prün wasser
vnd pall sy aus in ain kalcz wasser
vnd tue sy dann in ein dikche mandl milch
vnd mit //mit\\ wein wol gemacht
vnd erwell das vnd tü gwürtz genüg dartzue.
verb es mit veial pluemen
gib ez hin versalcz nicht.

Another Violet pudding
Take morels soak them in spring water
and pull them out in a cold water.
And do them then in a thick almond milk
and with wine well made.
And boil that and do spices enough thereto.
Color it with many [violet] flowers.
Give it in [i.e., serve it]. Over-salt not.





6. Rheinfränkisches Kochbuch, c. 1445

||44|| Wiltu gebacken morach machen
so nym clein morech vnd wesche sie schon
vnde snyde die büczelin dauon
vnd mach einen dunnen deig von wyszem mele
vnde gusz enwenig wins dar ane vnd ferbe isz
vnd czüch die morach da durch vnd backe sij

[I was not sure what büczelin meant, but i interpreted it as stems or stalks. Regarding this, Giano wrote: "[büczelin] likely means stems or lower ends - butz(e) and buerzel are cognate, meaning, respectively, the eaten-off core of an apple and the rear end of a duck.]

||44|| If you would make baked morels
so take small morels and wash them clean
and cut the stems from/off them
and make a thin dough/batter of white flour
and pour a little wine there on and color it (probably with saffron)
and pull the morels therethrough and bake them.





Kochbuch der Handschrift, UB Basel D II 30

Recipe 7 in this third batch

31. Ein essen von morchen vmb weinnachten
Wiltu machen vmb weinachten morchen essen
so mach einen taig ausz weissen melb prott vnd sla ayer dor an
vnd mach zwen knobel vnd wirffs in den taig
vnd zeuch sie dor vmb
vnd legs in ein smalcz daz nicht zu heisz ist
vnd wen es ein wenig gepach so nym es her wider ausz
vnd sney:d es do mitten auf dem knobel [knebel] von ein ander
vnd full es domit einem gerurten ay:eren taig weisz oder grün
oder mit gepranten opffell in honig
vnd nym denn einen linden strauben taig vnd zeuch es dor durch
vnd leg ez in ein smalcz wil aber er es aber keren
so mach ein gelbes platt
vnd secz dy morchen dor ein vnd la sie pachen vnd richt es an
vnd versalcz es nit

There were some questionable parts in this one, and Giano thought it was a bit confusing, too, but certainly understood better than i did. Further, he found a similar recipe in Meister Eberhard that helped clarify things. Giano has been translating a number of Medieval/Renaissance German cookbooks into English and hopes to publish some soon (i hope so, too!).

31. A food of morels for Weinnachten/Christmas Season
If you wish to make a Weinachten/Christmas morel dish
so make a dough of white bread flour and beat eggs there in
and make twin (a pair of?) knots/knobs
and toss them in the dough/batter and enclose them therein
and lay in fat that is not too hot
and when it is a little cooked take it out of there
and cut in the middle of the knots from one another

[Giano's translation of this line in Meister Eberhard says:
"cut it open across the middle of the knot"]

and fill it with white or green scrambled eggs
or with roasted apples in honey
and take then a thin batter (for deep frying) and close it therein
and lay it in fat wil aber er es aber keren
so make a golden leaf (crust)
and set the morels there on and let them bake and right on it
and over-salt it not.

Giano said of this one, "Looks like a complicated show dish for Christmas: first you make artificial 'mushroom caps' by deep-frying batter on a discarded core, then you fill that with a batter or apples, then dip in batter again and deep-fry, and then it goes into a pie crust as though it were mushrooms... I guess when you can't have the real thing in winter, it's a good excuse to torture the cook."

Recipe 8 in this third batch

46. Ein essen von gesulczten morchen
So full dy morchen mit einer guten full von ey:ren an spissel
vnd prott sie schon
vnd geusz dor ein ein gute prw:-dy
gemacht sey: vonn gesultzten vischen
oder sust ein gut prw dy: gemacht sey von guten dingen

46. A dish of jellied morels/ morels in aspic
Thus fill the morels with a good filling of eggs and seasonings
and roast them nicely
and pour thereon a good broth made of fish aspic
or just a good broth made of other good things.

[Thanks to Giano for pointing out that "gesulczten" means "jellied"]






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Translations copyright by me, Urtatim al-Qurtubiyya bint abd al-Karim al-Fassi, formerly known as Anahita, 2001 & 2006
REALLY
except as otherwise noted.
Updated 05 September 2011