Pennsic 36 (2007) West Kingdom Royal Feast


When i heard that Queen Kaaren wanted a Persian reign, i offered to cook for Her and King Jade at Pennsic. While there are not yet any surviving SCA-period Persian cookbooks translated into English, Persian cuisine greatly influenced the cuisine of the 'Abbasids and later dynasties.

I knew it would be hot and humid, so i planned a meal beginning with an array of cold dishes, known in Medieval Arabic cuisine as "bawarid". This was followed by a small course of warm dishes. And the meal finished with some light and refreshing fruit.

I had one intrepid assistant, Vittoria Aureli, an excellent cook in her own right. The kitchen was one table, a couple coolers, and a standard 2-burner Coleman stove.

I was surprised and pleased that Their Majesties' guests ate nearly everything i served.


MENU

1st COURSE - COLD DISHES
-- Bazmâwurd = Feast Opener - "chicken roll-ups"
-- Zaitun Mubakhkhar = Smoked Spiced Olives
-- Stuffed Eggs
-- Shîrâz bi-Buqal = fresh cheese with herbs
-- Sals Abyad = White Sauce (aka "Purple goop")
-- Lavash [because it is like the period bread ruqaq]
2nd COURSE - HOT DISHES
-- Manti - meat wonton with yogurt sauce
-- Bustâniyya = Orchard Dish - meat and chicken with dried fruit and spices
-- ‘Adasiyya = Lentil Dish with vegetables
-- Jazr = Spiced Carrots
-- Saffron Rice
3rd COURSE - DESSERTS
-- Oranges with orange flower water, rosewater, and cinnamon
-- Watermelon with fresh mint and lime juice
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1st COURSE - COLD DISHES
BAZMAAWURD - "chicken roll-ups"

Charles Perry wrote:
"This giant canapé was the traditional first course at a banquet in pre-Islamic Iran or Abbasid Baghdad. The name comes from the Persian bazm, “banquet,” and awurd, “bringing”. The recipe given here is from the collection of the Caliph al-Ma’mun. It calls for the flesh of citron, a fruit with very little flesh - we know it mostly for its candied peel. Lemon is an obvious substitute."
----- "Cooking with the Caliphs", Saudi Aramco World, July/August 2006, Volume 57, Number 4. Originally in al-Kitab al-Tabikh by al-Warraq

I did not have the original recipe at the time i made the feast, so i trusted Charles Perry's interpretation. I did alter quantities and proportions of ingredients to suit my taste.

I now have it, in the recently published Annals of the Caliphs' Kitchens, translated and annotated by Nawal Nasrallah
Bazmâward with citron pulp called al-Ma’muni
Chop cooked chicken and spread it on ruqâq [bread as thin as textiles]. Let there be underneath the chicken some skinned walnuts, citron pulp, mint, tarragon, basil, and salt. Roll up the bread.

MY VERSION:
2 lavash (Perry also suggests: Mexican flour tortillas or other fresh thin flatbreads), about 12" diameter
2 whole chicken breasts, cooked, boned and chopped/shredded
4 tablespoons chopped walnuts
3 to 4 lemons, peeled, seeded and chopped
2 tablespoon minced fresh tarragon
2 tablespoon chopped mint
1/4 cup chopped basil
  1. Spread both flatbreads separately on work surface.
  2. Sprinkle each evenly all over with chicken, walnuts, chopped lemon, tarragon, mint and basil.
  3. Roll up carefully but firmly and place on serving plate
  4. Cut each roll into 6 slices.
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ZAITUN MUBAKHKHAR - Smoked Spiced Olives

ORIGINAL
Take olives when fully ripe. If you want take them black, and if you want take them green, except that the green are better for smoking. Bruise them and put some salt on them, as much as needed, and turn them over every day until the bitterness goes away. When they throw off liquid, pour it off. When the bitterness is gone from them, spread them out on a woven tray until quite dry.

Then pound peeled garlic and cleaned thyme, as much as necessary. Take the quantity of a dirham of them, and a piece of walnut with its meat in it, and a dirham of wax, and a piece of cotton immersed in sesame oil, and a piece of date seed. Put these ingredients on a low fire on a stove [kanun] and seal its door, and put the tray the olives are in on top of it, and cover it with a tray so that it is filled with the scent of this smoke, which does not escape. Then leave it that way for a whole day.

Then you return them to a container large enough for them and mix the pounded garlic and thyme with them, and a little crushed walnut meat, and a handful of toasted sesame seeds. Take as much fresh sesame oil as needed and fry it with cumin seeds, and throw them on it and mix them with it.

Then take a greased pottery jug [barniyya] and smoke it in that smoke. Put the olives in it and cover the top, and it is put up for [several] days. It is not used until the sharpness of the garlic in it is broken.

----- The Book of the Description of Familiar Foods (in Medieval Arab Cookery, p. 403)

As I don't have the necessary equipment to smoke the olives, I added a few drops of smoke flavor to the drained olives.

MY VERSION:
1 pound mixed black, purple, and green olives
a few drops smoke flavoring
2 cloves garlic, peeled
a couple teaspoons dried thyme or zataar herb
1/4 cup shelled walnuts
1/4 cup white sesame seeds
2 teaspoons light sesame oil
1/2 teaspoons whole cumin seeds
  1. Drain olives well.
  2. Add a few drops of smoke flavoring to the drained olives. Be sure to mix very very well.
  3. Crush garlic cloves.
  4. Add thyme to garlic and crush further.
  5. Add garlic and thyme to olives. Blend well.
  6. Crush walnuts medium-fine in a mortar with a pestle. Add to olives and mix well.
  7. Toast sesame seeds in a frying pan with NO oil, over medium to medium-low heat, stirring very very frequently, until toasted fairly evenly to a rich gold. Add to olives and mix well.
  8. Put 2 tsp. sesame oil in frying pan, add whole cumin seeds, and cook on medium to medium-low heat until cumin darkens slightly and aroma comes out. Be careful not to burn. Stir into olives.
  9. Taste and adjust seasonings.
  10. Best if olives season for several days well covered in a cool place, stirring once a day to distribute flavorings.

NOTE: It is difficult to find plain zataar herb. Every shop I visited that had zataar had the kind that was a blend of zataar herb, salt, sesame seeds, and sumak. This blend is not suitable for this recipe. A friend of mine of Lebanese descent suggested I try the herb called "Greek oregano". This is NOT the standard oregano sold in supermarkets, which is "Mexican oregano" and which flavor I do not like. I did see "Greek oregano" in some of the Near Eastern markets and will try it when I make these olives again, which I most definitely will, as they were delicious.

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SALS ABYAD = "White Sauce" - Spiced Walnut-Sesame Butter

The name of this dish is from a European word for "sauce" (from Latin? from French?). The recipe is purely Near Eastern, however. Mustard was used to spike up some dishes. In Southwest Asia cooks used powdered mustard seed, while in al-Andalus and al-Maghrib they used prepared mustard.

ORIGINAL
Walnuts, garlic, pepper, Chinese cinnamon, white mustard, tahineh and lemon juice.
----- Book of the Description of Familiar Foods (in Medieval Arab Cookery, p. 389)

MY VERSION:
1/2 pound walnuts
2 cups sesame tahini from a Middle Eastern store - health food sesame paste doesn't work as well
several cloves garlic (i was a bit more moderate for the feast than i'd be for personal use)
3/4 tsp pepper
3/4 tsp powdered cinnamon
1/2 tsp salt
2 tsp-1 Tb yellow mustard powder
juice from 2 lemons
water as needed
more lemon juice as needed
  1. Grind walnuts finely.
  2. Mix together garlic, pepper, cinnamon, mustard, and walnuts.
  3. Mix walnuts into tahini
  4. Stir in the lemon juice and water until the consistency of a dip.
  5. Let stand several hours or overnight for flavors to develop.
  6. Shortly before serving add more water, if needed, and more fresh lemon juice, a bit at a time, to get the consistency of modern hummos-bi-tahini. I don't recall how much more i used.

Note: This turns purple because of the walnuts. Perhaps if they are peeled first, the dish will be whiter.

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SHÎRÂZ BI-BUQAL - Drained Curds with Herbs

ORIGINAL
This is an excellent relish which both awakens and stimulates the appetite. Take mint, celery and vegetable leeks: strip the leaves of the celery and mint. Chop all fine with a knife, then pound in the mortar. Mix well with dried curds, and sprinkle with salt to taste and fine ground mustard. Garnish with coarse chopped walnuts and serve. If dry curds are not available, use instead coagulated milk from which the water has been strained, mix with a little sour milk, and serve.
----- Kitab al-Tabikh by al-Baghdadi, 1226 CE

MY VERSION:
1/2 lb large curd cottage cheese
1/2 lb whole milk yogurt with NO additives, drained
1/4 cup fresh mint leaves, chopped fine
1/2 cup celery leaves, chopped fine
1/4 c. well-cleaned, finely chopped scallions or 1/8 c. fresh chives
1 tsp salt, or to taste
1 Tb. dry mustard, ground
1/4 cup walnuts, chopped coarsely
  1. Finely chop, then grind in a mortar or food processor, the mint, celery, scallions &/or chives (should be not quite a puree).
  2. Blend cottage cheese and drained yogurt. What i think should really be used here is homemade fresh cheese.
  3. Mix herbs into dairy until thoroughly blended.
  4. Stir in salt and powdered mustard, and garnish with chopped walnuts.

I now have a better idea what shîrâz is, thanks to the glossary by Nawal Nasrallah in Annals of a Caliphs' Kitchens. It is drained, and therefore thick, mâst, which is sour yogurt made with rennet.

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STUFFED EGGS

ORIGINAL
Take as many eggs as you like, and boil them whole in hot water; put them in cold water and split them in half with a thread. Take the yolks aside and pound cilantro and put in onion juice, pepper and coriander, and beat all this together with murri, oil and salt and knead the yolks with this until it forms a dough. Then stuff the whites with this and fasten it together, insert a small stick into each egg, and sprinkle them with pepper, God willing.
----- 13th C. anonymous Andalusian Cookbook

MY VERSION:
10 eggs
cilantro, pureed
1/2 yellow onion
1 Tb ground coriander seed
1/4 to 1/2 tsp ground black pepper
2 Tb murri/soy sauce
2 Tb sesame oil
salt to taste, if needed
  1. Put eggs into cold water, bring water to a boil, cover pan, remove from heat, and let stand 12 minutes
  2. Cover eggs with cold water, swirl, pour out warm water, add more cool water, etc.
  3. While eggs are cooking, puree cilantro, onion, pepper, and coriander seed.
  4. Beat spices with murri and oil.
  5. When eggs are cool, peel them, cut each in half, and separate yolks and white, saving both.
  6. Mash yolks, and mix in spice-murri blend, mashing and mixing well.
  7. Taste and add salt if needed.
  8. Fill white halves equally with yolk mix.
  9. Arrange halves on plate.

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2nd COURSE - HOT DISHES
MANTı

Stefan Yerasimos says:
Manti is without doubt the dish that attests to the continuity of a Turkish cuisine from Central Asia to our time. It thus appears logical that it is not encountered in the collection of Baghdadi, but that it was added by Shirvani. It appears every day in the menu of Mehmed II in June 1469 and as a dish served at the palace in autumn.

ORIGINAL
The art of manti is the following. Let them cut the dough like that of tutmash, but let them cut it in larger pieces. Let them make chopped meat from the leg of male sheep and let them salt it well.
----- Shirvani, folio 114 recto - verso (À la table du Grand Turc)

MY VERSION:
Wonton Wrappers
1 lb chopped Lamb (I couldn't find reasonably priced lamb, so i used beef)
Wine Vinegar
Salt
Pepper
1 small can (about 15 oz) chickpeas
1 Tb cinnamon
12 oz yogurt
1 large clove garlic, crushed
3 Tb ground sumac
  1. Knead the chopped meat with some vinegar, squeezing so any surplus vinegar drains off.
  2. Mix salt, pepper, and cinnamon into the chopped meat.
  3. Crush the chickpeas lightly and remove their skins.
  4. Mix chickpeas into ground meat.
  5. Have a small dish of clean water at hand.
  6. Place about as dozen wonton wrappers on work surface, in two rows side by side.
  7. On each wrapper place about a hazelnut-sized ball of chopped meat and chickpeas.
  8. Gather the corners of the wrappers together above the filling to the form of a bundle, moistening the edges with water so that they stick together well.
  9. Set bundles on a cookiesheet or other movable flat surface. DO NOT stack bundles on top of each other - they need to be separate.
  10. Continue filling wonton wrappers until all the meat is used.
  11. Bring water or light broth to a boil in a deep pot, reduce to a simmer, and gently throw in some of the dough bundles, as many as will fit comfortably into the pot. Let cook around 15 minutes.
  12. Gently remove with a strainer and set aside, then toss in another bunch of manti.
  13. Continue until all manti are cooked.
  14. Crush the large clove of garlic and mix into the yogurt, adding the sumac.
  15. Place manti on a platter and pour the yogurt sauce over them.
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JAZR - Carrots

David Waines says in In a Caliph's Kitchen:
There are a few dishes in the medieval Arabic repertoire where a vegetable is highlighted by itself. In this case it is used to decorate the plate on which something else is served; it is, in fact, a perfect accompaniment with a dish of plain rice. Carrots, at least, can be treated on their own as the carrot family of plants (which includes caraway, cumin, coriander, and dill, all common to medieval Arab cooking) is characterized by strongly scented essential oils. This recipe is thirteenth century Moroccan.

ORIGINAL:
Cut the carrots into pieces without peeling them. Select the middle bits and cut each piece in half and cook in salted water. Dry the pieces off and fry in a pan with fresh oil. Then pour over it boiling vinegar with crushed garlic and caraway. One can then either leave the carrot pieces without frying (or else place them after frying) as decoration on a platter.
----- (In a Caliph's Kitchen, p. 92-93)

Waines doesn't mention his source. It isn't in the anonymous Andalusian cookbook. It could be from al-Fadalat al-Jiwan, dated 1230, or another 13th C. Andalusian cookbook that, too, hasn't been translated into a modern European language.

MY VERSION:
1 lb. carrots
enough salted water to cover
3 Tb. cold-pressed sesame oil
1/2 c. red wine vinegar
several cloves of garlic, crushed
2 tsp. caraway seeds
1 tsp. salt to taste
3 Tb. chopped flat leaf parsley
  1. Peel carrots and cut into matchsticks several inches long.
  2. Blanche briefly in salted water and drain.
  3. Dry off the carrot pieces well.
  4. Toast caraway seeds in dry pan until they begin to color and give off aroma. Remove from fire and set aside.
  5. Fry carrots in a pan in sesame oil until they change color.
  6. In a small saucepan, bring vinegar to a boil, stir in crushed garlic and caraway seeds.
  7. Pour spiced vinegar over carrots in pan and toss well, before removing from heat.
  8. Put in serving dish, let cool, and garnish with chopped flat leaf parsley just before serving.

My Comment: This is *VERY* like some modern Moroccan recipe. The biggest differences are that the modern recipes use cumin, not caraway, often substitute lemon juice for the vinegar, and generally include a bit of powdered red chili/hot paprika.

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BUSTANIYA - "Orchard Dish"
Spiced Chicken and Lamb with Pears, Peaches, and Almonds


Fruit and meat cooked together is typically Near Eastern. "Bustan" means "orchard" and this dish contains pears, peaches, and almonds from the orchard.

ORIGINAL
Take small sour pears, wash and wrap in a moist cloth if they are dried pears, but if they are fresh, then macerate them in water and strain through a sieve. Then take chicken breasts, and cut them lengthwise in finger-sized strips and add to it as much meat [lamb] as you wish. Next throw in peaches and boil. Season the pot with pepper and ma'kamakh, oil, some spices, some sugar, wine vinegar, some almonds ground up fine; add to the pot. Then break eggs over and allow to settle.
----- by Abu Samin, "Father of Corpulence", in al-Kitab al-Tabikh by al-Warraq (In a Caliph's Kitchen, p. 119)

MY VERSION:
6 dried pear halves, cut in quarters
12 dried sulfured peach halves, cut each in half
12 dried plum halves, cut each in half
1 pound of boneless, skinless chicken thighs
1 pound of boneless, skinless chicken breasts
1-3/4 pounds of cubed lamb (cut as for stew or kabobs)
water
1/8 ounce Ceylon cinnamon sticks
1/8 ounce powdered ginger
1 Tb ground coriander seed
3/4 tsp white pepper
1-1/2 tsp salt, to taste
water, as needed
2 T granulated white sugar
1/4 cup red wine vinegar
1/4 cup ground blanched almonds
2 eggs, beaten
  1. With kitchen shears, cut dried fruit in half - since pears are larger, cut them in quarters.
  2. In wide deep pot place fruit, beef, spices, and salt. Add a little water - more liquid will develop out of both the meat and the fruit as the dish cooks.
  3. Put on high heat, bring to boil, then reduce heat to medium or medium-low, so liquid develops out of meat and fruit, and contents simmer about 1/2 hour.
  4. Add chicken pieces and cook another 1/2 hour.
  5. Taste for seasoning and adjust as necessary.
  6. Stir in sugar, vinegar, and almonds. Taste and adjust as necessary - should have a pleasant slightly sweet-and-sour flavor. After a few minutes on a low fire, the sauce should thicken.
  7. Stir in beaten eggs. After a few minutes on a low fire, the sauce should thicken further.
  8. Pour into serving dish.
Since the recipe does not specify which spices, i chose those used together in many recipes.

I assume that in the original, 12 eggs would have been used and left whole to cook in the sauce. However, this would be awkward to serve in a camping setting where it's rather dark and candles do not provide enough light to make sure that the dish is served so that each diner gets one egg. So i cheated.
The new translation by Nawal Nasrallah has some significant differences from the one i've been using by David Waines, which is different and has more information. Next time, i'll try it:

Bustâniyya from the copy of Abû Samîn
Wash small and sour plums and put them in a wet kerchief [to hydrate them] if using the dried variety. If fresh ones are used, add to them some water, press and mash them then strain the liquid. Cut chicken breasts into finger-like strips and add to them whatever you wish of other meats. [Put them in a pot], add the [strained juice of] cherries, and let them boil together. Season the pot with black pepper, mâ’kâmakh, olive oil, some spices, a small amount of sugar, wine vinegar, and 5 walnuts that have been shelled and crushed. [When the meat is cooked], break some eggs on it and let them set [with the steam in the pot], God willing.
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‘ADAS - Lentils

I mixed two recipes that featured lentils, one vegetarian but not highly seasoned, the other with meat and more spices, and left out the meat.

ORIGINALS

‘Adas
The best way of cooking lentils is to crush them and then cook them and put with them chard and taro. When it is done, sumac, fried onion, parsley, vinegar and oil are put with it.
----- Ibn al-Mabrad, Kitab al Tibakhah: A Fifteenth-Century Cookbook, translated Charles Perry in Medieval Arab Cookery

‘Adasiya
You cook the meat with chopped onion in oil and when the pot has been brought to the boil, and the scum removed, husked lentils are thrown in and cooked thoroughly. Then you pour in vinegar and spice it with coriander and cumin; throw in garlic (as well). Whosoever wishes may throw in ground cheese; whosoever wishes may colour it yellow with saffron. Throw in beet root [Urtatim says: actually is chard leaves] without the cheese and garlic. Whosoever wishes may throw in something sweet.
----- al-Warraq, Kitab al Tibikh, printed in In a Caliph's Kitchen (trans. David Waines)

MY VERSION:
2 cups lentils
1/2 lb. chard
1 lb taro (colocasia)
2 Tb. sumac
2 onions, sliced
salt
pepper
cumin
coriander
1/4 cup sesame oil
1/4 cup shredded parsley
1/4 cup (or more) white wine vinegar
  1. Remove largest toughest part of chard stalks, then shred/chop greens (and thinner veins)
  2. Wash taro well, peel, and cut in large dice.
  3. In a deep pot, cook lentils in 2X times as much water, with chard, taro, and salt, pepper, cumin, and coriander, until the lentils are very tender, adding more water, as necessary.
  4. While lentils cook, gently fry sliced onions in oil until almost caramelized.
  5. When lentils are very soft, stir in sumac, fried onions, parsley, vinegar and oil.
  6. Serve.
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ARRUZ AL-ZAFRAN - Saffron Rice

1 pound Basmati rice
2 X as much water as rice, by volume
scant 1/4 tsp saffron
1/2 tsp salt
  1. Put rice and water into pot.
  2. Add saffron, crumbled in your fingers and sprinkled over the rice.
  3. Bring to a boil.
  4. When water boils, reduce heat to very low, cover pot TIGHTLY, and cook about 12-15 minutes.
  5. Fluff rice (i hold the lid on tight and shake the pot vigorously) and dump onto serving dish, then arrange nicely.

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3rd COURSE - DESSERTS

These recipes are not historical, although the ingredients are, so they are "peri-oid". I wanted a light refreshing dessert, not cloying sweets, since the heat and humidity were stifling and the diners had eaten a rich dinner.

Oranges with Cinnamon & Rosewater

4 sweet oranges
white sugar if desired
1 tsp ground cinnamon
1 capful rosewater
1 capful orange flower water
  1. Partially cut, peel, and carefully pull oranges into 1/3s or 1/4s, while holding them over the serving bowl. The idea is to keep the "meat" intact...
  2. With a very sharp knife, cut off the inner edges of each segment "wrapper".
  3. Pick out any seeds, and gently remove the meat of each segment to the bowl. Hold the oranges over the bowl as you do this so any juice that comes out drips into the bowl.
  4. Sprinkle with cinnamon, rose water and orange flower water (and sugar if needed) and toss gently to distribute evenly.
Watermelon with Mint & Lime Juice

1 small round nicely ripe and sweet watermelon
1/2 cup shredded fresh mint
Juice of several limes
  1. Cut watermelon in half, then in quarters. Caution, since so much juice usually flows out.
  2. Removing seeds, cut watermelon meat into large cubes and put into serving bowl.
  3. Toss in shredded mint and lime juice and toss gently to distribute evenly.

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Bibliography

  • al-Warraq = al-Kitab al-Tabikh (The Book of Dishes) by Abu Muhammad al-Muzaffar ibn Nasr ibn Sayyar al-Warraq.
    This late 10th century cookbook is a compendium of recipes from cookbooks from several centuries which are now lost to us. It includes forty recipes from the great gastronome Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi (779-839 CE), half-brother of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid, as well as a number of recipes from Abu Samin, a chef to the Caliph al-Wathiq who died in 847 CE.
    1. "Cooking with the Caliphs"
      Charles Perry,
      Saudi Aramco World, July/August 2006, Volume 57, Number 4
      Has a few of al-Warraq's recipes
    2. In a Caliph's Kitchen
      Has a few of al-Warraq's recipes
    3. Annals of the Caliphs' Kitchens: Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq's Tenth-Century Baghdadi Cookbook
      translated and annotated by Nawal Nasrallah
      Brill, Leiden, Netherlands: December 2007.
      ISBN 9004158677
      Is a COMPLETE translation of this expansive cookbook, and includes very detailed glossaries of ingredients, dishes, and cooking utensils.
      (Unfortunately, this was published many months after the feast)

  • al-Baghdadi = al-Kitab al-Tabikh (The Book of Dishes) by Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Karim al-Katib al-Baghdadi, a cookbook dated 1226.
    This influential cookbook was copied for several centuries, and some cookbooks (such as the Description of Familiar Foods) included it along with parts of other cookbooks
    1. Arberry, A.J., “A Baghdad Cookery-Book”. Islamic Culture, Vol. 13 #1 (Jan. 1939), Pp. 20-47 and Vol. 13 #2 (April 1939), Pp. 189-2 14;
    2. some of Arberry's recipes in In a Caliph's Kitchen by David Waines;
    3. the complete text in "A Baghdad Cookery Book", trans. A.J. Arberry, notes by Charles Perry, Medieval Arab Cookery
    4. A Baghdad Cookery Book by Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Baghdadi
      translated by Charles Perry
      Prospect Books. Devon UK: 2006
      ISBN 1-903018-42-0 a completely NEW and IMPROVED translation by Perry from the original manuscript, published by Petits Propos Culinaire.

  • The so-called anonymous Andalusian Cookbook
    also known as Kitab al tabij fi-l-Magrib wa-l-Andalus fi `asr al-Muwahhidin, li-mu'allif mayhul
    (Book of Dishes from al-Magrib and al-Andalus from the Almohad period...)
    Complete text translated from the Arabic by Charles Perry
    with additional notes by SCAdians based on the faulty Spanish edition.
    This 13th century book contains recipes drawn from a number of works no longer surviving.
    13th C. Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook

  • Familiar Foods = al-Kitab Wasf al-At'ima al-Mu'tada (The Book of the Description of Familiar Foods), 1373.
    Complete text translated, introduced, and annotated by Charles Perry, in:
    Medieval Arab Cookery.

  • Ibn al-Mabrad =al-Kitab al-Tabikh (The Book of Dishes), 15th C.
    Complete text translated, introduced, and annotated by Charles Perry, in:
    Medieval Arab Cookery.
    Originally published in Petits Propos Culinaires #21.

  • Recipes added by Mehmed ibn Mahmoud Shirvani to his late 15th century translation of al-Baghdadi's cookbook.
    la table du Grand Turc (literally "At the table of the Sultan")
    by Stéphane Yerasimos
    L'Orient gourmand series, Sindbad/Editions Actes Sud. Arles, France: 2001.
    ISBN 2-7427-3443-0

    Also published in Modern Turkish as:
    Sultan sofralari : 15. ve 16. yüzyilda osmanli saray mutfagi
    by Stefanos Yerasimos
    YKY. Istanbul, Turkey: 2002
    ISBN 975-08-0386-8

    Only contains 23 Ottoman recipes, out of the 80 added by Shirvani

  • In a Caliph's Kitchen
    David Waines.
    Riad El-Rayyes Books Ltd., London: 1989.
    ISBN 1-869844-60-2
    Has recipes from a number of cookbooks, but no one complete cookbook. Also has very useful introductory essays.

  • Medieval Arab Cookery
    A. J. Arberry, Charles Perry, and Maxime Rodinson.
    Prospect Books, Devon UK: 2001.
    ISBN 0907325-91-2
    This book contains several of the above mentioned books, as well as numerous informative and useful essays.

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