Stravinsky's choice of and manipulation of rows is least complex in his shorter works. These works will be discussed below in chronological order: Epitaphium, Anthem, Elegy for J. F. K., Fanfare for a New Theater, and The Owl and the Pussy-Cat. (Double Canon, a short work using slightly more complicated compositional techniques, is discussed in an appendix.) Each of these works uses the rows described in the previous section: Prime, Retrograde, Inversion, and Retrograde Inversion beginning with the last note of the Prime (or Inverted Retrograde), and in some cases also the actual Retrograde Inversion. These works, spanning virtually all of Stravinsky's twelve-tone output, bear striking similarity in their compositional procedure.
Stravinsky dedicated Epitaphium to Prince Max Egon zu Fürstenberg, the sponsor of the Donaueschingen Festival at which Stravinsky was guest composer in 1957 and 1958. The prince died before the 1959 festival, and Stravinsky wrote a special work commemorating the prince for one of the festival concerts.
A mere seven measures long, Epitaphium concisely demonstrates Stravinsky's economical method of row succession. The work features only three instruments: a harp, a flute, and a clarinet, the latter two of which also appear in Webern's songs Op. 15, which premiered in the same concert as Epitaphium. Stravinsky further constrains his timbral palate by sounding either the harp alone or just the flute and clarinet. Only once, in M. 5 when the clarinet and harp both sound an a' do the harp and winds overlap in sonority.
In Epitaphium more than one row never sounds at the same time. The harp plays from one to four pitches of the same row simultaneously (M. 7). The flute and clarinet share rows, most often played in the same rhythm (except in M. 6). The Prime form of the row is first heard in the first measure of the harp part. Table 6 shows the standard twelve-tone matrix for the work.
int: -3 +5 +1 -4 -1 -5 -1 -3 +5 +1 +1 I-0 I-9 I-2 I-3 I-11 I-10 I-5 I-4 I-1 I-6 I-7 I-8 P-0 C# Bb Eb E C B F# F D G Ab A P-3 E C# F# G Eb D A Ab F Bb B C P-10 B Ab C# D Bb A E Eb C F F# G P-9 Bb G C C# A Ab Eb D B E F F# P-1 D B E F C# C G F# Eb Ab A Bb P-2 Eb C F F# D C# Ab G E A Bb B P-7 Ab F Bb B G F# C# C A D Eb E P-8 A F# B C Ab G D C# Bb Eb E F P-11 C A D Eb B Bb F E C# F# G Ab P-6 G E A Bb F# F C B Ab C# D Eb P-5 F# Eb Ab A F E B Bb G C C# D P-4 F D G Ab E Eb Bb A F# B C C#
The entire work employs just four rows, with repetitions, as shown in Table 7. The arrows in the chart show where consecutive rows share a beginning or ending pitch class with one other: RI-4 and R-0 both begin with A, R-0 ends and I-0 begins with C#.
|Measure||Flute & Clarinet Rows||Harp Rows||Form|
The row succession creates a simple binary form (A and B) consisting of two sections of four rows each: A: P-0, P-0, I-0, RI-4; and B: R-0, R-0, I-0, RI-4. Each section of the binary form (MM. 1-4, 5-7) begins with two statements of a row: the Prime stated twice in the first section (P-0), and Retrograde stated twice in the second section (R-0). Each section of the binary form ends with the same two rows: the Inversion followed by the Retrograde Inversion beginning with the last note of the Prime (I-0 and RI-4).
An interesting event occurs at the center of the binary pattern. In M. 4, the flute and clarinet share the RI-4 row, but end with an additional statement of the first pitch of that row, A. In M. 5, the R-0 form begins in the harp with a grace-note G (actually the third note of the row played out of order) followed by A and Ab (the first two notes of the row), and the remainder of the row (notes four through twelve). In fact, the beginning of the harp's row R-0 is blurred here since the last two notes of the flute part in the previous measure are the same as the first two notes of the R-0 form heard in the harp (Ab and A). Significantly, this blurring occurs at the central moment of the work.
In the flute part in M. 6 the order of the fourth and fifth members of R-0 (D and F) are switched. In the same measure, the C# in the flute is treated as a pivot note that serves as both the last member of R-0 and the first member of I-0. Significantly, C# is also the first note of the Prime form of the row. The only other note that could serve as a pivot note in a work based on these four rows is A (the first pitch in R-0 and RI-4), the same note that served a blurring function in MM. 4 and 5, as described in the previous paragraph.
Since Stravinsky employs only four closely related rows, a simpler way to show the important rows and their relationships can be achieved without a matrix. Instead, a graphical representation can be created to summarize Stravinsky's complete row usage in Epitaphium. Table 8, lists the four important rows that Stravinsky used (P-0, I-0, R-0, RI-4), their directions according to the classical matrix (I-0 is top to down, P-0 left to right, etc.), and their common ending or beginning pitches (C# is shared by P-0 and I-0, A is shared by R-0 and RI-4). Note that this example format discards all extraneous rows and information from the matrix, and focuses on only those rows actually used in the piece.
The economy of Stravinsky's row choices are governed by the intervalic relationship of the beginning and ending pitch classes of the P-0 row: in Epitaphium, ic4. Note that this intervalic relationship has far-reaching implications for much of Stravinsky's twelve-tone music.
F Ab Eb D F# G ^ C | C# RI-4 E P-0 -> B Bb C# Bb Eb E C B F# F D G Ab A E B <- R-0 Bb I-0 D | Eb v Ab A C G F# F
In 1960, Cambridge University Press asked Stravinsky to compose a work to be included in an Anglican hymnal. T. S. Eliot suggested that Stravinsky take the text for this hymn from Eliot's Four Quartets: Little Gidding, Part IV. Stravinsky dedicated Anthem to T. S. Eliot, and presented him with the manuscript score. Anthem demonstrates Stravinsky's method of row succession in a manner similar to Epitaphium. However, Anthem is a larger work (43 MM.) and calls for a four-part mixed, unaccompanied chorus. The poetry for Anthem is given in Table 9.
|The dove descending breaks the air
With flame of incandescent terror
Of which the tongues declare
The one discharge from sin and error.
The only hope, or else despair
Lies in the choice of pyre or pyre --
To be redeemed from fire by fire.
Who then devised the torment? Love.
Love is the unfamiliar Name
Behind the hands that wove
The intolerable shirt of flame
Which human power cannot remove.
We only live, only suspire
Consumed by either fire or fire.
In Anthem Stravinsky employs rows horizontally (melodically), so that a complete row is sounded by each voice, and when voices are heard simultaneously they usually each sing different rows. An exception occurs in M. 29 where the tenor and bass voices exchange rows on the word "Name."
The Prime form of the row is taken from the alto voice, which sounds first. Stravinsky's row use implies a pitch center for the work of F, specifically F-minor, since the first two notes of the row (F and Ab, the root and third of an F-minor chord) are the first two notes of the work, the notes of the tenor and bass entrance in m. 17, the pitches of the cadence at m. 25, and the last harmonic sonority of the work. Table 10 shows the standard twelve-tone matrix for Anthem.
int: +3 -5 -2 -2 +1 -2 -1 -2 -3 +2 -4 I-0 I-3 I-10 I-8 I-6 I-7 I-5 I-4 I-2 I-11 I-1 I-9 P-0 F Ab Eb C# B C Bb A G E F# D P-9 D F C Bb Ab A G F# E C# Eb B P-2 G Bb F Eb C# D C B A F# Ab E P-4 A C G F Eb E D C# B Ab Bb F# P-6 B D A G F F# E Eb C# Bb C Ab P-5 Bb C# Ab F# E F Eb D C A B G P-7 C Eb Bb Ab F# G F E D B C# A P-8 C# E B A G Ab F# F Eb C D Bb P-10 Eb F# C# B A Bb Ab G F D E C P-1 F# A E D C C# B Bb Ab F G Eb P-11 E G D C Bb B A Ab F# Eb F C# P-3 Ab B F# E D Eb C# C Bb G A F
Like Epitaphium, Anthem also employs just four rows, with repetitions, as shown in Table 11. The arrows in the chart show where consecutive rows share an overlapping linking pitch with each other.
|Measures||Soprano Rows||Alto Rows||Tenor Rows||Bass Rows||Form|
Anthem is composed according to a binary pattern, as dictated by the two-verse structure of the poetic text. Each stanza of the setting is further subdivided into two sections, one section for duet (first soprano and alto, then tenor and bass), the other for full chorus. The rows in the first verse are repeated (with a small adjustment for A') in the same order for the second verse.
The pitches F and D (the first and last pitches of P-0) act as important pivot notes in many places in Anthem. Throughout the work, two consecutive rows often share a pitch at their beginning or end. As the arrows indicate in Table 11, in M. 4 and in the return of the same material in M. 28, D hinges the P-0 and RI-6 first in the Alto, then the Tenor voice. Further, in MM. 20-21 and in MM. 38-39, F hinges R-0 and I-0 in the Soprano at the same time as D hinges P-0 and R-0 in the Bass (the second member of R-0, F#, occurs out of order one note before, being also the eleventh member of P-0).
All four rows employed in Anthem are related by their starting pitch, which is either the first or last (twelfth) note of the Prime series. Table 12 summarizes Stravinsky's complete row usage in Anthem. This graphical representation lists the four important rows, their directions (in relation to the classical matrix), and their common starting pitches (P-0 and I-0 share F, R-0 and RI-6 share D). The graphic also makes plain the hinge or pivot properties of the rows.
B Ab C# Eb F E ^ F# | G RI-6 A P-0 -> C Bb F Ab Eb C# B C Bb A G E F# D D G <- R-0 A I-0 B | Bb v C C# Eb F# E Ab
Eric Walter White labels the rows differently by taking the first Soprano statement as the Prime form of the row instead of the Alto statement. (Eric Walter White, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works, 2nd ed., (University of California, 1979), 101. See also the footnote concerning row order, 520, fn. 2.) However, even with White's assessment, the relationship of the rows in the above graphic analysis remains the same, albeit rotated 180 degrees and with alternate names (P-0 becomes R-0, RI-6 becomes I-0, etc.). But, because the graphic analysis primarily is concerned with the relationships between the rows, the name of each row (in the case of Anthem, RI-6 or I-0) is, on the whole, irrelevant. Rather, the important aspects to the analyst of Stravinsky's works are the pitch and row structures and their relationships to each other.
Like Epitaphium, Stravinsky's row usage is dictated by the interval class relationship between the first and last pitch classes in the P-0 row. Where in Epitaphium Stravinsky used beginning and ending pitches from the ic4 cycle (A, C#, F), here he uses beginning and ending pitch classes from the ic3 cycle (F, D, B, Ab). Again, Stravinsky has a preoccupation with economical row usage.
Stravinsky wrote the short work Elegy for J. F. K. to commemorate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on 22 November 1963. In Elegy for J. F. K., Stravinsky set a short poem by W. H. Auden for singer (either baritone or mezzo-soprano) and three clarinets (two in Bb, one alto clarinet in Eb). Both Auden's poem and Stravinsky's music were dedicated to Kennedy. The poetry is given in Table 13. Stravinsky sets the words syllabically, with no melismas.
|When a just man dies,
Lamentation and praise,
Sorrow and joy are one.
Why then? Why there?
Why thus, we cry, did he die?
The heavens are silent.
What he was, he was:
What he is fated to become
Depends on us.
Remembering his death
How we choose to live
Will decide its meaning.
When a just man dies,
Lamentation and praise,
Sorrow and joy are one.
The Prime form of the row of Elegy for J. F. K. is taken from the melody in the voice, beginning in the first measure, even though the alto clarinet actually sounds the first pitch of the piece. Table 14 shows the standard twelve-tone matrix for Elegy for J. F. K. Note that the final two pitch classes of P-0 and I-0 are Eb and C#.
int: -6 -2 -2 +6 +1 -6 -2 -2 -1 -3 -2 I-0 I-6 I-4 I-2 I-8 I-9 I-3 I-1 I-11 I-10 I-7 I-5 P-0 Ab D C Bb E F B A G F# Eb C# P-6 D Ab F# E Bb B F Eb C# C A G P-8 E Bb Ab F# C C# G F Eb D B A P-10 F# C Bb Ab D Eb A G F E C# B P-4 C F# E D Ab A Eb C# B Bb G F P-3 B F Eb C# G Ab D C Bb A F# E P-9 F B A G C# D Ab F# E Eb C Bb P-11 G C# B A Eb E Bb Ab F# F D C P-1 A Eb C# B F F# C Bb Ab G E D P-2 Bb E D C F# G C# B A Ab F Eb P-5 C# G F Eb A Bb E D C B Ab F# P-7 Eb A G F B C F# E D C# Bb Ab
All the rows that Stravinsky employs in Elegy for J. F. K. are shown in Table 15. The arrows show where rows overlap (pivot) by either one or two pitches. The rows P-0 and RI-0 overlap with both Eb and C# in M.6 and MM. 7-9, whereas I-0 and RI-0 overlap with both Ab in MM. 17-18. Even so, the row forms structurally hinge on Ab, the first note of the P-0 row.
|Measures||Voice Rows||Clarinet Rows||Form|
|1-8||P-0||RI-0 (MM. 7-8 eb" & bb" in cl. 1 & 3)||A|
|9-13||RI-0 (2-note overlap M. 6)||P-0 (sharing 6, 7,& 10 with voice)||B|
|14-17||(d'-e' out of rows)||RI-0|
|24-28||P-0||R-0 (no 10)|
|29-38||P-0||RI-0 (MM. 35-37 incomplete row)||A'|
Stravinsky combines horizontal (melodic) and vertical (harmonic or chordal) row use with some less strict pitch ordering in Elegy for J. F. K. He employs rows horizontally in the vocal part, and both horizontally and vertically in the clarinets. On one occasion, Stravinsky borrows pitches from a simultaneous row statement to fill in notes for a row, where clarinets borrow three pitches from the vocal line in MM. 10-13 (F, B, F#). In MM. 14-15 the voice slowly trills d'-e', pitches outside of the tone row for the text "The Heavens are silent." Elsewhere, a row statement lacks an internal pitch, in M. 24 where clarinets omit F#. Finally, in the clarinet 1 & alto clarinet parts in MM. 7-8 (Bb and Eb, P-0 pitches 2 & 3), and in the expanded return of the material in MM. 35-37 the pitches are taken from P-0, but out of order and incomplete. In each of these instances, Stravinsky writes only partial or incomplete row statements, perhaps indicative of the incompleteness he and many others felt when President Kennedy was assassinated. Similarly, Stravinsky was to employ incomplete row statements at the end of Introitus, discussed in an appendix, dedicated to the memory of his friend T. S. Eliot.
In Elegy for J. F. K. Stravinsky uses different rows than he did in Epitaphium or Anthem. In an analysis of Elegy for J. F. K. according to classical rows as indicated by the matrix, the entire work employs four rows (more specifically, two rows and their Retrogrades). But whereas in both Epitaphium and Anthem Stravinsky used the Retrograde Inversion starting on the last pitch of the Prime form, in Elegy for J. F. K. he uses the Retrograde Inversion as the true Retrograde of the Inverted form of the row, i.e. the Retrograde of the row starting on the last pitch of the Inversion, or RI-0. The four rows used in this piece are shown in Table 16.
P-0 -> <- R-0 Ab D C Bb E F B A G F# Eb C# D E F# I-0 C | B v F G ^ A | Bb RI-0 C# Eb
The structure of Elegy for J. F. K. is ternary. The material of the opening measures (MM. 1-9) returns at the end (MM. 29-37), as does a repetition of Auden's first stanza. In addition, the voice sings exclusively P-0 rows except for the poignant words "Why then? Why there? Why thus, we cry, did he die?" when he uses the RI-0 form. Stravinsky's abrupt departure from P-0 to RI-0 at this point underscores the severity and futility in attempting to find a comforting answer to the poet's rhetorical question. In this case, Stravinsky's craft at text setting is striking since he chooses to highlight the words of the most emotional weight in the poem with a unique row for the voice.
Stravinsky's economical row choices are manifest in Elegy for J. F. K. in the ic5 relationship of the first and last pitches in P-0.
Fanfare for a New Theater is a short work for two trumpets in C. Stravinsky's intention was that it be used as a short signal for patrons before a production by Lincoln Kirstein and George Balanchine at the New York State Theater in the Lincoln Center.
Stravinsky employs rows horizontally in Fanfare for a New Theater. On occasion both trumpets play the identical row at the same time, but they do so without sharing pitches. Rather, each row occurs in its entirety in each of the trumpet parts at different rates (see chart below, the trumpets start together on system 3).
The Prime form of the row of Fanfare for a New Theater is taken from the first aggregate in either trumpet part, both of which begin with the same form. The standard twelve-tone matrix for Fanfare for a New Theater is given in Table 17.
The symmetry in the row is noteworthy: the first and last four intervals in the row are identical, but in reverse order. Tetrachordal invariance between some rows results. For example, P-0 (1-4) are the same pitches in the same order as RI-9 (1-4). In this case, however, Stravinsky does not exploit the invariance of the rows in this composition.
int: -1 +2 +2 +1 -2 +3 +2 -1 +2 +2 -1 I-0 I-11 I-1 I-3 I-4 I-2 I-5 I-7 I-6 I-8 I-10 I-9 P-0 Bb A B C# D C Eb F E F# Ab G P-1 B Bb C D Eb C# E F# F G A Ab P-11 A Ab Bb C C# B D E Eb F G F# P-9 G F# Ab Bb B A C D C# Eb F E P-8 F# F G A Bb Ab B C# C D E Eb P-10 Ab G A B C Bb C# Eb D E F# F P-7 F E F# Ab A G Bb C B C# Eb D P-5 Eb D E F# G F Ab Bb A B C# C P-6 E Eb F G Ab F# A B Bb C D C# P-4 D C# Eb F F# E G A Ab Bb C B P-2 C B C# Eb E D F G F# Ab Bb A P-3 C# C D E F Eb F# Ab G A B Bb
The rows that Stravinsky uses in Fanfare for a New Theater are indicated below in Table 18. System numbers from the single-page Boosey & Hawkes score are given instead of measure numbers, because the entire work only contains one internal bar line, after the initial unison motive in the first system. The arrows in the chart show where rows share a pitch at their beginning or end. The rows P-0 and R-0 pivot on G, as do P-0 and RI-6. The rows RI-0 and I-0 pivot on Bb, as do R-0 and I-0. All successive rows for each trumpet hinge this way except the final row statement in trumpet two (between I-0 and R-0).
|System on Score||Trumpet One||Trumpet Two|
Fanfare for a New Theater shares row-usage techniques with Elegy for J. F. K. as well as both Epitaphium and Anthem. In an analysis of Fanfare for a New Theater according to classical rows as indicated by the matrix, the entire work employs five rows. Just as in all the works so far discussed, Fanfare uses the Prime, Retrograde, and Inversion rows. Like Epitaphium and Anthem, Fanfare uses the Retrograde Inversion beginning on the last note of the Prime form (in this case RI-6). Like Elegy for J. F. K., Fanfare uses the true Retrograde Inversion (RI-0) row. The five rows used in this brief work are shown in Table 19 below.
E F Eb C# C D ^ B | A RI-6 Bb P-0 -> Ab F# Bb A B C# D C Eb F E F# Ab G B A <- R-0 G I-0 F# | Ab v F Eb ^ E | D RI-0 C C#
The form of this short work is through-composed. Note however, that Stravinsky uses both of the Retrograde Inversion forms in the middle of the piece, and that each trumpet part only contains one of these forms (trumpet 2, RI-6 in system 2; trumpet 1, RI-0 in system 4). Thus, these rows are treated as more "distant" from the opening and closing forms than the Prime, Retrograde, and Inversion forms, which were used for the opening (P-0) and closing (I-0 and R-0) of the work as well as internally.
In Fanfare for a New Theater, Stravinsky's row use exploits the ic3 relationship of the beginning and ending pitches of the P-0 row.
Stravinsky's last complete composition is The Owl and the Pussy-Cat. This short piece is a setting for soprano and piano of Edward Lear's poem. The piano plays one line in octaves throughout. The row of this delightful piece with its many major seconds seems to depict a cat walking lightly up the piano keyboard.
The poetic text of The Owl and the Pussy-Cat is printed in Table 20.
|The Owl and the Pussy-Cat went to sea
In a beautiful pea-green boat,
They took some honey, and plenty of money,
Wrapped up in a five-pound note.
The Owl looked up to the stars above,
And sang to a small guitar,
"O lovely Pussy, O Pussy, my love,
What a beautiful Pussy you are,
You are, You are!
What a beautiful Pussy you are!"
Pussy said to the Owl, "You elegant fowl!
How charmingly sweet you sing!
Oh let us be married! too long we have tarried
But what shall we do for a ring?"
They sailed away for a year and a day,
To the land where the Bong-tree grows,
And there in a wood a Piggy-wig stood,
With a ring at the end of his nose,
His nose, His nose,
With a ring at the end of his nose.
"Dear Pig, are you willing to sell for one shilling
Your ring?" Said the Piggy, "I will."
So they took it away, and were married next day
By the Turkey who lives on the hill.
They dined on mince, and slices of quince,
Which they ate with a runcible spoon;
And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand,
They danced by the light of the moon,
The moon, The moon,
They danced by the light of the moon.
|page2, system 1
page 3, system 2
page 4, system 3
page 5, system 4
page 6, system 3
page 7, system 4
Stravinsky uses rows horizontally in The Owl and the Pussy-Cat in a two-part texture consisting of the piano part and the soprano part.
The Prime form of the row of The Owl and the Pussy-Cat is taken from the first aggregate stated in both the piano and the soprano part, both of which begin with the same form. Table 21 shows the standard twelve-tone matrix for this piece.
int: +2 -5 +2 -3 -2 -1 +2 +3 +3 +3 -1 I-0 I-2 I-9 I-11 I-8 I-6 I-5 I-7 I-10 I-1 I-4 I-3 P-0 D E B C# Bb Ab G A C Eb F# F P-10 C D A B Ab F# F G Bb C# E Eb P-3 F G D E C# B Bb C Eb F# A Ab P-1 Eb F C D B A Ab Bb C# E G F# P-4 F# Ab Eb F D C B C# E G Bb A P-6 Ab Bb F G E D C# Eb F# A C B P-7 A B F# Ab F Eb D E G Bb C# C P-5 G A E F# Eb C# C D F Ab B Bb P-2 E F# C# Eb C Bb A B D F Ab G P-11 C# Eb Bb C A G F# Ab B D F E P-8 Bb C G A F# E Eb F Ab B D C# P-9 B C# Ab Bb G F E F# A C Eb D
All of the rows used in The Owl and the Pussy-Cat are shown in Table 22 below. Page and system numbers from the Boosey & Hawkes score are indicated because the work has no bar lines. In the first and second verses, the vocal part repeats the rows exactly. The arrows show where two consecutive rows hinge or pivot on one common pitch. The rows I-0 and RI-0 share B, P-0 and R-0 share F, P-0 and RI-0 as well as I-0 and P-0 share D.
|Page & System||Voice Rows||Piano Rows||Form|
|2, 1||P-0||P-0||Verse 1|
|4, 3||P-0||P-0||Verse 2|
|6, 3||P-0||P-0||Verse 3|
|7, 4||P-0 (first pitch in pno)||P-0||3b|
Like Fanfare for a New Theater, The Owl and the Pussy-Cat employs five rows. In addition to the common forms of Prime, Retrograde, and Inversion that Stravinsky uses in all the pieces discussed thus far, in The Owl and the Pussy-Cat he uses both the un-transposed Retrograde Inversion (RI-0) form and a transposed Inversion form (I-6). This transposed Inversion form is the Retrograde of the Retrograde Inversion starting on the last note of the Prime form (see Table 23 below). As in all the works examined above, this row is related to the Prime form, since the last note of the Prime form (F) is also the last note of this form. Table 23 shows the five rows employed in The Owl and the Pussy-Cat. Again, the example shows the systematic relationships based on hinge or pivot motion.
Ab F# I-6 B | A v C D Eb C# Bb P-0 -> G E D E B C# Bb Ab G A C Eb F# F C F <- R-0 Eb I-0 F# | Ab v A G ^ E | C# RI-0 Bb B
The song sets the three verses of Lear's poetry continuously. Stravinsky uses rows to articulate important formal events. For example, the beginning of each verse is set to both the piano and soprano performing the P-0 row. Furthermore, internal poetic division at the change of rhyme scheme (when the first "c" line begins in each stanza's rhyme pattern: a-b-a-b-c-d-c-d-d-d) provokes similar row treatment in the first two stanzas, where Stravinsky uses I-0 and RI-0 rows (marked in Table 22 above showing rows employed as 1b and 2b). At the analogous place in the third stanza, Stravinsky uses P-0 forms in both the piano and the voice, as he had done at the beginning of each stanza (marked as 3b). The single occurrence of the I-6 row, in the middle stanza of the setting, is appropriate for the piano's depiction of Lear's bizarre line "And there in a wood a Piggy-wig stood".
In The Owl and the Pussy-Cat, Stravinsky's economy of row usage is shown by his exploitation of the ic3 relationship of the first and last pitches in the P-0 row.
The analyses in this chapter show that Stravinsky often implements certain row deployments to help define musical structure. In Epitaphium Stravinsky creates a small two-part structure where the second half of each part uses the same rows. In Anthem another two-part structure repeats on a larger scale that follows the two-verse poetic structure. In Elegy for J. F. K. the opening row material returns at the end, forming a rounded binary structure. In Fanfare the Retrograde Inversion rows are used in the center of the work, and are treated as more distant than the other forms, which appear at the beginning and the end of the short piece. Finally, in The Owl and the Pussy-Cat Stravinsky uses similar rows at the beginning and in the exact center of each of the three verses of text.
Furthermore, the analyses in this chapter also show that Stravinsky sets certain portions of the poetry to particular rows in order to emphasize the meaning of the poetry. In Elegy for J. F. K. the voice sings exclusively P-0 rows, except for the poignant words "Why then? Why there? Why thus, we cry, did he die?" when Stravinsky uses the RI-0 form. In The Owl and the Pussy-Cat the only occurrence of the I-6 row, in the middle stanza of the setting, is appropriate for the piano's depiction of Lear's strange line "And there in a wood a Piggy-wig stood."
Stravinsky's Topology. Doctoral Dissertation. Boulder, CO: University of Colordao, 2000. www.lulu.com/akuster
(C) Copyright 2000 Andrew Kuster. All Rights Reserved.